40 CFR 141.80 - General requirements.
(a) Applicability and effective dates.
(1) The requirements of this subpart I constitute the national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. Unless otherwise indicated, each of the provisions of this subpart applies to community water systems and non-transient, non-community water systems (hereinafter referred to as “water systems” or “systems”).
(b) Scope. These regulations establish a treatment technique that includes requirements for corrosion control treatment, source water treatment, lead service line replacement, and public education. These requirements are triggered, in some cases, by lead and copper action levels measured in samples collected at consumers' taps.
(c) Lead and copper action levels.
(1) The lead action level is exceeded if the concentration of lead in more than 10 percent of tap water samples collected during any monitoring period conducted in accordance with § 141.86 is greater than 0.015 mg/L (i.e., if the “90th percentile” lead level is greater than 0.015 mg/L).
(2) The copper action level is exceeded if the concentration of copper in more than 10 percent of tap water samples collected during any monitoring period conducted in accordance with § 141.86 is greater than 1.3 mg/L (i.e., if the “90th percentile” copper level is greater than 1.3 mg/L).
(3) The 90th percentile lead and copper levels shall be computed as follows:
(i) The results of all lead or copper samples taken during a monitoring period shall be placed in ascending order from the sample with the lowest concentration to the sample with the highest concentration. Each sampling result shall be assigned a number, ascending by single integers beginning with the number 1 for the sample with the lowest contaminant level. The number assigned to the sample with the highest contaminant level shall be equal to the total number of samples taken.
(ii) The number of samples taken during the monitoring period shall be multiplied by 0.9.
(iii) The contaminant concentration in the numbered sample yielded by the calculation in paragraph (c)(3)(ii) is the 90th percentile contaminant level.
(iv) For water systems serving fewer than 100 people that collect 5 samples per monitoring period, the 90th percentile is computed by taking the average of the highest and second highest concentrations.
(v) For a public water system that has been allowed by the State to collect fewer than five samples in accordance with § 141.86(c), the sample result with the highest concentration is considered the 90th percentile value.
(d) Corrosion control treatment requirements.
(1) All water systems shall install and operate optimal corrosion control treatment as defined in § 141.2.
(2) Any water system that complies with the applicable corrosion control treatment requirements specified by the State under §§ 141.81 and 141.82 shall be deemed in compliance with the treatment requirement contained in paragraph (d)(1) of this section.
(e) Source water treatment requirements. Any system exceeding the lead or copper action level shall implement all applicable source water treatment requirements specified by the State under § 141.83.
(f) Lead service line replacement requirements. Any system exceeding the lead action level after implementation of applicable corrosion control and source water treatment requirements shall complete the lead service line replacement requirements contained in § 141.84.
(g) Public education requirements. Pursuant to § 141.85, all water systems must provide a consumer notice of lead tap water monitoring results to persons served at the sites (taps) that are tested. Any system exceeding the lead action level shall implement the public education requirements.
(h) Monitoring and analytical requirements. Tap water monitoring for lead and copper, monitoring for water quality parameters, source water monitoring for lead and copper, and analyses of the monitoring results under this subpart shall be completed in compliance with §§ 141.86, 141.87, 141.88, and 141.89.
(i) Reporting requirements. Systems shall report to the State any information required by the treatment provisions of this subpart and § 141.90.
(j) Recordkeeping requirements. Systems shall maintain records in accordance with § 141.91.
(k) Violation of national primary drinking water regulations. Failure to comply with the applicable requirements of §§ 141.80-141.91, including requirements established by the State pursuant to these provisions, shall constitute a violation of the national primary drinking water regulations for lead and/or copper.