40 CFR 145.12 - Requirements for compliance evaluation programs.
(a) State programs shall have procedures for receipt, evaluation, retention and investigation for possible enforcement of all notices and reports required of permittees and other regulated persons (and for investigation for possible enforcement of failure to submit these notices and reports).
(b) State programs shall have inspection and surveillance procedures to determine, independent of information supplied by regulated persons, compliance or noncompliance with applicable program requirements. The State shall maintain:
(1) A program which is capable of making comprehensive surveys of all facilities and activities subject to the State Director's authority to identify persons subject to regulation who have failed to comply with permit application or other program requirements. Any compilation, index, or inventory of such facilities and activities shall be made available to the Regional Administrator upon request;
(2) A program for periodic inspections of the facilities and activities subject to regulation. These inspections shall be conducted in a manner designed to:
(i) Determine compliance or noncompliance with issued permit conditions and other program requirements;
(ii) Verify the accuracy of information submitted by permittees and other regulated persons in reporting forms and other forms supplying monitoring data; and
(iii) Verify the adequacy of sampling, monitoring, and other methods used by permittees and other regulated persons to develop that information;
(3) A program for investigating information obtained regarding violations of applicable program and permit requirements; and
(4) Procedures for receiving and ensuring proper consideration of information submitted by the public about violations. Public effort in reporting violations shall be encouraged and the State Director shall make available information on reporting procedures.
(c) The State Director and State officers engaged in compliance evaluation shall have authority to enter any site or premises subject to regulation or in which records relevant to program operation are kept in order to copy any records, inspect, monitor or otherwise investigate compliance with permit conditions and other program requirements. States whose law requires a search warrant before entry conform with this requirement.
(d) Investigatory inspections shall be conducted, samples shall be taken and other information shall be gathered in a manner [e.g., using proper “chain of custody” procedures] that will produce evidence admissible in an enforcement proceeding or in court.