40 CFR 145.13 - Requirements for enforcement authority.
(a) Any State agency administering a program shall have available the following remedies for violations of State program requirements:
(1) To restrain immediately and effectively any person by order or by suit in State court from engaging in any unauthorized activity which is endangering or causing damage to public health or environment;
This paragraph requires that States have a mechanism (e.g., an administrative cease and desist order or the ability to seek a temporary restraining order) to stop any unauthorized activity endangering public health or the environment.
(2) To sue in courts of competent jurisdiction to enjoin any threatened or continuing violation of any program requirement, including permit conditions, without the necessity of a prior revocation of the permit;
(3) To assess or sue to recover in court civil penalties and to seek criminal remedies, including fines, as follows:
(i) For all wells except Class II wells, civil penalties shall be recoverable for any program violation in at least the amount of $2,500 per day. For Class II wells, civil penalties shall be recoverable for any program violation in at least the amount of $1,000 per day.
(ii) Criminal fines shall be recoverable in at least the amount of $5,000 per day against any person who willfully violates any program requirement, or for Class II wells, pipeline (production) severance shall be imposable against any person who willfully violates any program requirement.
In many States the State Director will be represented in State courts by the State Attorney General or other appropriate legal officer. Although the State Director need not appear in court actions he or she should have power to request that any of the above actions be brought.
(1) The maximum civil penalty or criminal fine (as provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section) shall be assessable for each instance of violation and, if the violation is continuous, shall be assessable up to the maximum amount for each day of violation.
(2) The burden of proof and degree of knowledge or intent required under State law for establishing violations under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, shall be no greater than the burden of proof or degree of knowledge or intent EPA must provide when it brings an action under the Safe Drinking Water Act.
For example, this requirement is not met if State law includes mental state as an element of proof for civil violations.
(c) A civil penalty assessed, sought, or agreed upon by the State Director under paragraph (a)(3) of this section shall be appropriate to the violation.
To the extent that State judgments or settlements provide penalties in amounts which EPA believes to be substantially inadequate in comparison to the amounts which EPA would require under similar facts, EPA, when authorized by the applicable statute, may commence separate actions for penalties.
In addition to the requirements of this paragraph, the State may have other enforcement remedies. The following enforcement options, while not mandatory, are highly recommended:
Procedures for assessment by the State of the costs of investigations, inspections, or monitoring surveys which lead to the establishment of violations;
Procedures which enable the State to assess or to sue any persons responsible for unauthorized activities for any expenses incurred by the State in removing, correcting, or terminating any adverse effects upon human health and the environment resulting from the unauthorized activity, or both; and
Procedures for the administrative assessment of penalties by the Director.
(d) Any State administering a program shall provide for public participation in the State enforcement process by providing either:
(1) Authority which allows intervention as of right in any civil or administrative action to obtain remedies specified in paragraph (a) (1), (2) or (3) of this section by any citizen having an interest which is or may be adversely affected; or
(2) Assurance that the State agency or enforcement authority will:
(i) Investigate and provide written responses to all citizen complaints submitted pursuant to the procedures specified in § 145.12(b)(4);
(ii) Not oppose intervention by any citizen when permissive intervention may be authorized by statute, rule, or regulation; and
(iii) Publish notice of and provide at least 30 days for public comment on any proposed settlement of a State enforcement action.
(e) To the extent that an Indian Tribe does not assert or is precluded from asserting criminal enforcement authority the Administrator will assume primary enforcement responsibility for criminal violations. The Memorandum of Agreement in § 145.25 shall reflect a system where the Tribal agency will refer such violations to the Administrator in an appropriate and timely manner.