40 CFR § 52.46 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) relating to ozone season emissions of nitrogen oxides from Municipal Waste Combustors?

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§ 52.46 What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) relating to ozone season emissions of nitrogen oxides from Municipal Waste Combustors?

(a) Definitions. All terms not defined in this paragraph (a) shall have the meaning given them in the Act and in subpart A of 40 CFR part 60.

Affected unit means a municipal waste combustor meeting the applicability criteria of this section.

Chief facility operator means the person in direct charge and control of the operation of a municipal waste combustor and who is responsible for daily onsite supervision, technical direction, management, and overall performance of the facility.

Mass burn refractory municipal waste combustor means a field-erected combustor that combusts municipal solid waste in a refractory wall furnace. Unless otherwise specified, this includes combustors with a cylindrical rotary refractory wall furnace.

Mass burn rotary waterwall municipal waste combustor means a field-erected combustor that combusts municipal solid waste in a cylindrical rotary waterwall furnace or on a tumbling-tile grate.

Mass burn waterwall municipal waste combustor means a field-erected combustor that combusts municipal solid waste in a waterwall furnace.

Municipal waste combustor, MWC, or municipal waste combustor unit means:

(i) Means any setting or equipment that combusts solid, liquid, or gasified MSW including, but not limited to, field-erected incinerators (with or without heat recovery), modular incinerators (starved-air or excess-air), boilers (i.e., steam-generating units), furnaces (whether suspension-fired, grate-fired, mass-fired, air curtain incinerators, or fluidized bed-fired), and pyrolysis/combustion units. Municipal waste combustors do not include pyrolysis/combustion units located at plastics/rubber recycling units. Municipal waste combustors do not include internal combustion engines, gas turbines, or other combustion devices that combust landfill gases collected by landfill gas collection systems.

(ii) The boundaries of a MWC are defined as follows. The MWC unit includes, but is not limited to, the MSW fuel feed system, grate system, flue gas system, bottom ash system, and the combustor water system. The MWC boundary starts at the MSW pit or hopper and extends through:

(A) The combustor flue gas system, which ends immediately following the heat recovery equipment or, if there is no heat recovery equipment, immediately following the combustion chamber;

(B) The combustor bottom ash system, which ends at the truck loading station or similar ash handling equipment that transfer the ash to final disposal, including all ash handling systems that are connected to the bottom ash handling system; and

(C) The combustor water system, which starts at the feed water pump and ends at the piping exiting the steam drum or superheater.

(iii) The MWC unit does not include air pollution control equipment, the stack, water treatment equipment, or the turbine generator set.

Municipal waste combustor unit capacity means the maximum charging rate of a municipal waste combustor unit expressed in tons per day of municipal solid waste combusted, calculated according to the procedures under paragraph (e)(4) of this section.

Shift supervisor means the person who is in direct charge and control of the operation of a municipal waste combustor and who is responsible for onsite supervision, technical direction, management, and overall performance of the facility during an assigned shift.

(b) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to each new or existing municipal waste combustor unit with a combustion capacity greater than 250 tons per day (225 megagrams per day) of municipal solid waste and which is located within any of the States listed in § 52.40(c)(2), including Indian country located within the borders of any such State(s).

(c) Emissions limitations. If you are the owner or operator of an affected unit, you must meet the following emissions limitations at all times, except during startup and shutdown, on a 30-day rolling average basis during the 2026 ozone season and in each ozone season thereafter:

(1) 110 ppmvd at 7 percent oxygen on a 24-hour block averaging period; and

(2) 105 ppmvd at 7 percent oxygen on a 30-day rolling averaging period.

(d) Startup and shutdown requirements. If you are the owner or operator of an affected unit, you must comply with the following requirements during startup and shutdown:

(1) During periods of startup and shutdown, you shall meet the following emissions limits at stack oxygen content:

(i) 110 ppmvd at stack oxygen content on a 24-hour block averaging period; and

(ii) 105 ppmvd at stack oxygen content on a 30-day rolling averaging period.

(2) Duration of startup and shutdown, periods are limited to 3 hours per occurrence.

(3) The startup period commences when the affected unit begins the continuous burning of municipal solid waste and does not include any warmup period when the affected unit is combusting fossil fuel or other nonmunicipal solid waste fuel, and no municipal solid waste is being fed to the combustor.

(4) Continuous burning is the continuous, semicontinuous, or batch feeding of municipal solid waste for purposes of waste disposal, energy production, or providing heat to the combustion system in preparation for waste disposal or energy production. The use of municipal solid waste solely to provide thermal protection of the grate or hearth during the startup period when municipal solid waste is not being fed to the grate is not considered to be continuous burning.

(5) The owner and operator of an affected unit shall minimize NOX emissions by operating and optimizing the use of all installed pollution control technology and combustion controls consistent with the technological limitations, manufacturers' specifications, good engineering and maintenance practices, and good air pollution control practices for minimizing emissions (as defined in 40 CFR 60.11(d)) for such equipment and the unit at all times the unit is in operation.

(e) Testing and monitoring requirements.

(1) If you are the owner or operator of an affected unit, you shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) for measuring the oxygen or carbon dioxide content of the flue gas at each location where NOX are monitored and record the output of the system. You shall comply with the following test procedures and test methods:

(i) You shall use a span value of 25 percent oxygen for the oxygen monitor or 20 percent carbon dioxide for the carbon dioxide monitor;

(ii) You shall install, evaluate, and operate the CEMS in accordance with 40 CFR 60.13;

(iii) You shall complete the initial performance evaluation no later than 180 days after the date of initial startup of the affected unit, as specified under 40 CFR 60.8;

(iv) You shall operate the monitor in conformance with Performance Specification 3 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix B, except for section 2.3 (relative accuracy requirement);

(v) You shall operate the monitor in accordance with the quality assurance procedures of 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, except for section 5.1.1 (relative accuracy test audit); and

(vi) If you select carbon dioxide for use in diluent corrections, you shall establish the relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels during the initial performance test according to the following procedures and methods:

(A) This relationship may be reestablished during performance compliance tests; and

(B) You shall submit the relationship between carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations to the EPA as part of the initial performance test report and as part of the annual test report if the relationship is reestablished during the annual performance test.

(2) If you are the owner or operator of an affected unit, you shall use the following procedures and test methods to determine compliance with the NOX emission limits in paragraph (c) of this section:

(i) If you are not already operating a CEMS in accordance with 40 CFR 60.13, you shall conduct an initial performance test for nitrogen oxides consistent with 40 CFR 60.8.

(ii) You shall install and operate the NOX CEMS according to Performance Specification 2 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix B, and shall follow the requirements of 40 CFR 60.58b(h)(10).

(iii) Quarterly accuracy determinations and daily calibration drift tests for the CEMS shall be performed in accordance with Procedure 1 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix F.

(iv) When NOX continuous emissions data are not obtained because of CEMS breakdowns, repairs, calibration checks, and zero and span adjustments, emissions data shall be obtained using other monitoring systems as approved by the EPA or EPA Reference Method 19 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A–7, to provide, as necessary, valid emissions data for a minimum of 90 percent of the hours per calendar quarter and 95 percent of the hours per calendar year the unit is operated and combusting municipal solid waste.

(v) You shall use EPA Reference Method 19, section 4.1, in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A–7, for determining the daily arithmetic average NOX emissions concentration.

(A) You may request that compliance with the NOX emissions limit be determined using carbon dioxide measurements corrected to an equivalent of 7 percent oxygen. The relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels for the affected unit shall be established as specified in paragraph (e)(1)(vi) of this section.

(B) [Reserved]

(vi) At a minimum, you shall obtain valid CEMS hourly averages for 90 percent of the operating hours per calendar quarter and for 95 percent of the operating hours per calendar year that the affected unit is combusting municipal solid waste:

(A) At least 2 data points per hour shall be used to calculate each 1-hour arithmetic average.

(B) Each NOX 1-hour arithmetic average shall be corrected to 7 percent oxygen on an hourly basis using the 1-hour arithmetic average of the oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emissions monitoring system data.

(vii) The 1-hour arithmetic averages section shall be expressed in parts per million by volume (dry basis) and used to calculate the 24-hour daily arithmetic average concentrations. The 1-hour arithmetic averages shall be calculated using the data points required under 40 CFR 60.13(e)(2).

(viii) All valid CEMS data must be used in calculating emissions averages even if the minimum CEMS data requirements of paragraph (e)(2)(iv) of this section are not met.

(ix) The procedures under 40 CFR 60.13 shall be followed for installation, evaluation, and operation of the CEMS. The initial performance evaluation shall be completed no later than 180 days after the date of initial startup of the municipal waste combustor unit.

(3) If you are the owner or operator of an affected unit, you must determine compliance with the startup and shutdown requirements of paragraph (d) of this section by following the requirements in paragraphs (e)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section:

(i) You can measure CEMS data at stack oxygen content. You can dismiss or exclude CEMS data from compliance calculations, but you shall record and report CEMS data in accordance with the provisions of 40 CFR 60.59b(d)(7).

(ii) You shall determine compliance with the NOX mass loading emissions limitation for periods of startup and shutdown by calculating the 24-hour average of all hourly average NOX emissions concentrations from continuous emissions monitoring systems.

(A) You shall perform this calculations using stack flow rates derived from flow monitors, for all the hours during the 3-hour startup or shutdown period and the remaining 21 hours of the 24-hour period.

(B) [Reserved]

(4) If you are the owner or operator of an affected unit, you shall calculate municipal waste combustor unit capacity using the following procedures:

(i) For municipal waste combustor units capable of combusting municipal solid waste continuously for a 24-hour period, municipal waste combustor unit capacity shall be calculated based on 24 hours of operation at the maximum charging rate. The maximum charging rate shall be determined as specified in paragraphs (e)(4)(i)(A) and (B) of this section as applicable.

(A) For combustors that are designed based on heat capacity, the maximum charging rate shall be calculated based on the maximum design heat input capacity of the unit and a heating value of 12,800 kilojoules per kilogram for combustors firing refuse-derived fuel and a heating value of 10,500 kilojoules per kilogram for combustors firing municipal solid waste that is not refuse-derived fuel.

(B) For combustors that are not designed based on heat capacity, the maximum charging rate shall be the maximum design charging rate.

(ii) For batch feed municipal waste combustor units, municipal waste combustor unit capacity shall be calculated as the maximum design amount of municipal solid waste that can be charged per batch multiplied by the maximum number of batches that could be processed in a 24-hour period. The maximum number of batches that could be processed in a 24-hour period is calculated as 24 hours divided by the design number of hours required to process one batch of municipal solid waste, and may include fractional batches (e.g., if one batch requires 16 hours, then 24/16, or 1.5 batches, could be combusted in a 24-hour period). For batch combustors that are designed based on heat capacity, the design heating value of 12,800 kilojoules per kilogram for combustors firing refuse-derived fuel and a heating value of 10,500 kilojoules per kilogram for combustors firing municipal solid waste that is not refuse-derived fuel shall be used in calculating the municipal waste combustor unit capacity in megagrams per day of municipal solid waste.

(f) Recordkeeping requirements. If you are the owner or operator of an affected unit, you shall maintain records of the following information, as applicable, for each affected unit consistent with the requirements of § 52.40(g).

(1) The calendar date of each record.

(2) The emissions concentrations and parameters measured using continuous monitoring systems.

(i) All 1-hour average NOX emissions concentrations.

(ii) The average concentrations and percent reductions, as applicable, including all 24-hour daily arithmetic average NOX emissions concentrations.

(3) Identification of the calendar dates and times (hours) for which valid hourly NOX emissions, including reasons for not obtaining the data and a description of corrective actions taken.

(4) Identification of each occurrence that NOX emissions data, or operational data (i.e., unit load) have been excluded from the calculation of average emissions concentrations or parameters, and the reasons for excluding the data.

(5) The results of daily drift tests and quarterly accuracy determinations for CEMS, as required under 40 CFR part 60, appendix F, Procedure 1.

(6) The following records:

(i) Records showing the names of the municipal waste combustor chief facility operator, shift supervisors, and control room operators who have been provisionally certified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers or an equivalent State-approved certification program as required by 40 CFR 60.54b(a) including the dates of initial and renewal certifications and documentation of current certification;

(ii) Records showing the names of the municipal waste combustor chief facility operator, shift supervisors, and control room operators who have been fully certified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers or an equivalent State-approved certification program as required by 40 CFR 60.54b(b) including the dates of initial and renewal certifications and documentation of current certification;

(iii) Records showing the names of the municipal waste combustor chief facility operator, shift supervisors, and control room operators who have completed the EPA municipal waste combustor operator training course or a State-approved equivalent course as required by 40 CFR 60.54b(d) including documentation of training completion; and

(iv) Records of when a certified operator is temporarily off site. Include two main items:

(A) If the certified chief facility operator and certified shift supervisor are off site for more than 12 hours, but for 2 weeks or less, and no other certified operator is on site, record the dates that the certified chief facility operator and certified shift supervisor were off site.

(B) When all certified chief facility operators and certified shift supervisors are off site for more than 2 weeks and no other certified operator is on site, keep records of four items:

(1) Time of day that all certified persons are off site.

(2) The conditions that cause those people to be off site.

(3) The corrective actions taken by the owner or operator of the affected unit to ensure a certified chief facility operator or certified shift supervisor is on site as soon as practicable.

(4) Copies of the reports submitted every 4 weeks that summarize the actions taken by the owner or operator of the affected unit to ensure that a certified chief facility operator or certified shift supervisor will be on site as soon as practicable.

(7) Records showing the names of persons who have completed a review of the operating manual as required by 40 CFR 60.54b(f) including the date of the initial review and subsequent annual reviews.

(8) Records of steps taken to minimize emissions during startup and shutdown as required by paragraph (d)(5) of this section.

(g) Reporting requirements.

(1) If you are the owner or operator of an affected unit, you must submit the results of the performance test or performance evaluation of the CEMS following the procedures specified in § 52.40(g) within 60 days after the date of completing each performance test required by this section.

(2) If you are the owner or operator of an affected unit, you shall submit an annual report in PDF format to the EPA by January 30th of each year via CEDRI or analogous electronic reporting approach provided by the EPA to report data required by this section. Annual reports shall be submitted following the procedures in § 52.40(g). The report shall include all information required by paragraph (e) of this section, including CEMS data to demonstrate compliance with the applicable emissions limits under paragraph (c) of this section.

[88 FR 36869, June 5, 2023]