# 40 CFR § 60.18 - General control device and work practice requirements.

§ 60.18 General control device and work practice requirements.

(a) Introduction.

(1) This section contains requirements for control devices used to comply with applicable subparts of 40 CFR parts 60 and 61. The requirements are placed here for administrative convenience and apply only to facilities covered by subparts referring to this section.

(2) This section also contains requirements for an alternative work practice used to identify leaking equipment. This alternative work practice is placed here for administrative convenience and is available to all subparts in 40 CFR parts 60, 61, 63, and 65 that require monitoring of equipment with a 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, Method 21 monitor.

(b) Flares. Paragraphs (c) through (f) apply to flares.

(c)

(1) Flares shall be designed for and operated with no visible emissions as determined by the methods specified in paragraph (f), except for periods not to exceed a total of 5 minutes during any 2 consecutive hours.

(2) Flares shall be operated with a flame present at all times, as determined by the methods specified in paragraph (f).

(3) An owner/operator has the choice of adhering to either the heat content specifications in paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section and the maximum tip velocity specifications in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, or adhering to the requirements in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section.

(i)

(A) Flares shall be used that have a diameter of 3 inches or greater, are nonassisted, have a hydrogen content of 8.0 percent (by volume), or greater, and are designed for and operated with an exit velocity less than 37.2 m/sec (122 ft/sec) and less than the velocity, Vmax, as determined by the following equation:

Vmax = (XH2−K1)* K2
Where:
Vmax = Maximum permitted velocity, m/sec.
K1 = Constant, 6.0 volume-percent hydrogen.
K2 = Constant, 3.9(m/sec)/volume-percent hydrogen.
XH2 = The volume-percent of hydrogen, on a wet basis, as calculated by using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D1946-77. (Incorporated by reference as specified in § 60.17).

(B) The actual exit velocity of a flare shall be determined by the method specified in paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(ii) Flares shall be used only with the net heating value of the gas being combusted being 11.2 MJ/scm (300 Btu/scf) or greater if the flare is steam-assisted or air-assisted; or with the net heating value of the gas being combusted being 7.45 MJ/scm (200 Btu/scf) or greater if the flare is nonassisted. The net heating value of the gas being combusted shall be determined by the methods specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(4)

(i) Steam-assisted and nonassisted flares shall be designed for and operated with an exit velocity, as determined by the methods specified in paragraph (f)(4) of this section, less than 18.3 m/sec (60 ft/sec), except as provided in paragraphs (c)(4) (ii) and (iii) of this section.

(ii) Steam-assisted and nonassisted flares designed for and operated with an exit velocity, as determined by the methods specified in paragraph (f)(4), equal to or greater than 18.3 m/sec (60 ft/sec) but less than 122 m/sec (400 ft/sec) are allowed if the net heating value of the gas being combusted is greater than 37.3 MJ/scm (1,000 Btu/scf).

(iii) Steam-assisted and nonassisted flares designed for and operated with an exit velocity, as determined by the methods specified in paragraph (f)(4), less than the velocity, Vmax, as determined by the method specified in paragraph (f)(5), and less than 122 m/sec (400 ft/sec) are allowed.

(5) Air-assisted flares shall be designed and operated with an exit velocity less than the velocity, Vmax, as determined by the method specified in paragraph (f)(6).

(6) Flares used to comply with this section shall be steam-assisted, air-assisted, or nonassisted.

(d) Owners or operators of flares used to comply with the provisions of this subpart shall monitor these control devices to ensure that they are operated and maintained in conformance with their designs. Applicable subparts will provide provisions stating how owners or operators of flares shall monitor these control devices.

(e) Flares used to comply with provisions of this subpart shall be operated at all times when emissions may be vented to them.

(f)

(1) Method 22 of appendix A to this part shall be used to determine the compliance of flares with the visible emission provisions of this subpart. The observation period is 2 hours and shall be used according to Method 22.

(2) The presence of a flare pilot flame shall be monitored using a thermocouple or any other equivalent device to detect the presence of a flame.

(3) The net heating value of the gas being combusted in a flare shall be calculated using the following equation:

${H}_{T}=K\sum _{i=1}^{n}{C}_{i}{H}_{i}$

where:
HT = Net heating value of the sample, MJ/scm; where the net enthalpy per mole of offgas is based on combustion at 25 °C and 760 mm Hg, but the standard temperature for determining the volume corresponding to one mole is 20 °C;

$\begin{array}{c}K=\begin{array}{c}\text{Constant,}\\ 1.740×{10}^{-7}\end{array}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\left(\frac{1}{\mathrm{ppm}}\right)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\left(\frac{\text{g mole}}{\mathrm{scm}}\right)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\left(\frac{\mathrm{MJ}}{\mathrm{kcal}}\right)\\ \text{where the standard temperature for}\left(\frac{\text{g mole}}{\mathrm{scm}}\right)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{is 20°C;}\end{array}$

Ci = Concentration of sample component i in ppm on a wet basis, as measured for organics by Reference Method 18 and measured for hydrogen and carbon monoxide by ASTM D1946-77 or 90 (Reapproved 1994) (Incorporated by reference as specified in § 60.17); and
Hi = Net heat of combustion of sample component i, kcal/g mole at 25 °C and 760 mm Hg. The heats of combustion may be determined using ASTM D2382-76 or 88 or D4809-95 (incorporated by reference as specified in § 60.17) if published values are not available or cannot be calculated.

(4) The actual exit velocity of a flare shall be determined by dividing the volumetric flowrate (in units of standard temperature and pressure), as determined by Reference Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D as appropriate; by the unobstructed (free) cross sectional area of the flare tip.

(5) The maximum permitted velocity, Vmax, for flares complying with paragraph (c)(4)(iii) shall be determined by the following equation.

Log10 (Vmax) = (HT + 28.8)/31.7
Vmax = Maximum permitted velocity, M/sec
28.8 = Constant
31.7 = Constant
HT = The net heating value as determined in paragraph (f)(3).

(6) The maximum permitted velocity, Vmax, for air-assisted flares shall be determined by the following equation.

Vmax = 8.706 + 0.7084 (HT)
Vmax = Maximum permitted velocity, m/sec
8.706 = Constant
0.7084 = Constant
HT = The net heating value as determined in paragraph (f)(3).

(g) Alternative work practice for monitoring equipment for leaks. Paragraphs (g), (h), and (i) of this section apply to all equipment for which the applicable subpart requires monitoring with a 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, Method 21 monitor, except for closed vent systems, equipment designated as leakless, and equipment identified in the applicable subpart as having no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background. An owner or operator may use an optical gas imaging instrument instead of a 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, Method 21 monitor. Requirements in the existing subparts that are specific to the Method 21 instrument do not apply under this section. All other requirements in the applicable subpart that are not addressed in paragraphs (g), (h), and (i) of this section apply to this standard. For example, equipment specification requirements, and non-Method 21 instrument recordkeeping and reporting requirements in the applicable subpart continue to apply. The terms defined in paragraphs (g)(1) through (5) of this section have meanings that are specific to the alternative work practice standard in paragraphs (g), (h), and (i) of this section.

(1) Applicable subpart means the subpart in 40 CFR parts 60, 61, 63, or 65 that requires monitoring of equipment with a 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, Method 21 monitor.

(2) Equipment means pumps, valves, pressure relief valves, compressors, open-ended lines, flanges, connectors, and other equipment covered by the applicable subpart that require monitoring with a 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, Method 21 monitor.

(3) Imaging means making visible emissions that may otherwise be invisible to the naked eye.

(4) Optical gas imaging instrument means an instrument that makes visible emissions that may otherwise be invisible to the naked eye.

(5) Repair means that equipment is adjusted, or otherwise altered, in order to eliminate a leak.

(6) Leak means:

(i) Any emissions imaged by the optical gas instrument;

(ii) Indications of liquids dripping;

(iii) Indications by a sensor that a seal or barrier fluid system has failed; or

(iv) Screening results using a 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, Method 21 monitor that exceed the leak definition in the applicable subpart to which the equipment is subject.

(h) The alternative work practice standard for monitoring equipment for leaks is available to all subparts in 40 CFR parts 60, 61, 63, and 65 that require monitoring of equipment with a 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, Method 21 monitor.

(1) An owner or operator of an affected source subject to CFR parts 60, 61, 63, or 65 can choose to comply with the alternative work practice requirements in paragraph (i) of this section instead of using the 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, Method 21 monitor to identify leaking equipment. The owner or operator must document the equipment, process units, and facilities for which the alternative work practice will be used to identify leaks.

(2) Any leak detected when following the leak survey procedure in paragraph (i)(3) of this section must be identified for repair as required in the applicable subpart.

(3) If the alternative work practice is used to identify leaks, re-screening after an attempted repair of leaking equipment must be conducted using either the alternative work practice or the 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, Method 21 monitor at the leak definition required in the applicable subpart to which the equipment is subject.

(4) The schedule for repair is as required in the applicable subpart.

(5) When this alternative work practice is used for detecting leaking equipment, choose one of the monitoring frequencies listed in Table 1 to subpart A of this part in lieu of the monitoring frequency specified for regulated equipment in the applicable subpart. Reduced monitoring frequencies for good performance are not applicable when using the alternative work practice.

(6) When this alternative work practice is used for detecting leaking equipment the following are not applicable for the equipment being monitored:

(i) Skip period leak detection and repair;

(ii) Quality improvement plans; or

(iii) Complying with standards for allowable percentage of valves and pumps to leak.

(7) When the alternative work practice is used to detect leaking equipment, the regulated equipment in paragraph (h)(1)(i) of this section must also be monitored annually using a 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7, Method 21 monitor at the leak definition required in the applicable subpart. The owner or operator may choose the specific monitoring period (for example, first quarter) to conduct the annual monitoring. Subsequent monitoring must be conducted every 12 months from the initial period. Owners or operators must keep records of the annual Method 21 screening results, as specified in paragraph (i)(4)(vii) of this section.

(i) An owner or operator of an affected source who chooses to use the alternative work practice must comply with the requirements of paragraphs (i)(1) through (i)(5) of this section.

(1) Instrument Specifications. The optical gas imaging instrument must comply with the requirements in (i)(1)(i) and (i)(1)(ii) of this section.

(i) Provide the operator with an image of the potential leak points for each piece of equipment at both the detection sensitivity level and within the distance used in the daily instrument check described in paragraph (i)(2) of this section. The detection sensitivity level depends upon the frequency at which leak monitoring is to be performed.

(ii) Provide a date and time stamp for video records of every monitoring event.

(2) Daily Instrument Check. On a daily basis, and prior to beginning any leak monitoring work, test the optical gas imaging instrument at the mass flow rate determined in paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section in accordance with the procedure specified in paragraphs (i)(2)(ii) through (i)(2)(iv) of this section for each camera configuration used during monitoring (for example, different lenses used), unless an alternative method to demonstrate daily instrument checks has been approved in accordance with paragraph (i)(2)(v) of this section.

(i) Calculate the mass flow rate to be used in the daily instrument check by following the procedures in paragraphs (i)(2)(i)(A) and (i)(2)(i)(B) of this section.

(A) For a specified population of equipment to be imaged by the instrument, determine the piece of equipment in contact with the lowest mass fraction of chemicals that are detectable, within the distance to be used in paragraph (i)(2)(iv)(B) of this section, at or below the standard detection sensitivity level.

(B) Multiply the standard detection sensitivity level, corresponding to the selected monitoring frequency in Table 1 of subpart A of this part, by the mass fraction of detectable chemicals from the stream identified in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section to determine the mass flow rate to be used in the daily instrument check, using the following equation.

${E}_{\mathrm{dic}}-\left({E}_{\mathrm{sds}}\right)\sum _{i=1}^{k}{x}_{i}$

Where:
Edic = Mass flow rate for the daily instrument check, grams per hour
xi = Mass fraction of detectable chemical(s) i seen by the optical gas imaging instrument, within the distance to be used in paragraph (i)(2)(iv)(B) of this section, at or below the standard detection sensitivity level, Esds.
Esds = Standard detection sensitivity level from Table 1 to subpart A, grams per hour
k = Total number of detectable chemicals emitted from the leaking equipment and seen by the optical gas imaging instrument.

(ii) Start the optical gas imaging instrument according to the manufacturer's instructions, ensuring that all appropriate settings conform to the manufacturer's instructions.

(iii) Use any gas chosen by the user that can be viewed by the optical gas imaging instrument and that has a purity of no less than 98 percent.

(iv) Establish a mass flow rate by using the following procedures:

(A) Provide a source of gas where it will be in the field of view of the optical gas imaging instrument.

(B) Set up the optical gas imaging instrument at a recorded distance from the outlet or leak orifice of the flow meter that will not be exceeded in the actual performance of the leak survey. Do not exceed the operating parameters of the flow meter.

(C) Open the valve on the flow meter to set a flow rate that will create a mass emission rate equal to the mass rate specified in paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section while observing the gas flow through the optical gas imaging instrument viewfinder. When an image of the gas emission is seen through the viewfinder at the required emission rate, make a record of the reading on the flow meter.

(v) Repeat the procedures specified in paragraphs (i)(2)(ii) through (i)(2)(iv) of this section for each configuration of the optical gas imaging instrument used during the leak survey.

(vi) To use an alternative method to demonstrate daily instrument checks, apply to the Administrator for approval of the alternative under § 60.13(i).

(3) Leak Survey Procedure. Operate the optical gas imaging instrument to image every regulated piece of equipment selected for this work practice in accordance with the instrument manufacturer's operating parameters. All emissions imaged by the optical gas imaging instrument are considered to be leaks and are subject to repair. All emissions visible to the naked eye are also considered to be leaks and are subject to repair.

(4) Recordkeeping. You must keep the records described in paragraphs (i)(4)(i) through (i)(4)(vii) of this section:

(i) The equipment, processes, and facilities for which the owner or operator chooses to use the alternative work practice.

(ii) The detection sensitivity level selected from Table 1 to subpart A of this part for the optical gas imaging instrument.

(iii) The analysis to determine the piece of equipment in contact with the lowest mass fraction of chemicals that are detectable, as specified in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section.

(iv) The technical basis for the mass fraction of detectable chemicals used in the equation in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(B) of this section.

(v) The daily instrument check. Record the distance, per paragraph (i)(2)(iv)(B) of this section, and the flow meter reading, per paragraph (i)(2)(iv)(C) of this section, at which the leak was imaged. Keep a video record of the daily instrument check for each configuration of the optical gas imaging instrument used during the leak survey (for example, the daily instrument check must be conducted for each lens used). The video record must include a time and date stamp for each daily instrument check. The video record must be kept for 5 years.

(vi) Recordkeeping requirements in the applicable subpart. A video record must be used to document the leak survey results. The video record must include a time and date stamp for each monitoring event. A video record can be used to meet the recordkeeping requirements of the applicable subparts if each piece of regulated equipment selected for this work practice can be identified in the video record. The video record must be kept for 5 years.

(vii) The results of the annual Method 21 screening required in paragraph (h)(7) of this section. Records must be kept for all regulated equipment specified in paragraph (h)(1) of this section. Records must identify the equipment screened, the screening value measured by Method 21, the time and date of the screening, and calibration information required in the existing applicable subpart.

(5) Reporting. Submit the reports required in the applicable subpart. Submit the records of the annual Method 21 screening required in paragraph (h)(7) of this section to the Administrator via e-mail to CCG-AWP@EPA.GOV.

[51 FR 2701, Jan. 21, 1986, as amended at 63 FR 24444, May 4, 1998; 65 FR 61752, Oct. 17, 2000; 73 FR 78209, Dec. 22, 2008]