40 CFR § 60.73a - Emissions testing and monitoring.
(a) General emissions monitoring requirements. You must install and operate a NOX concentration (ppmv) continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS). You must also install and operate a stack gas flow rate monitoring system. With measurements of stack gas NOX concentration and stack gas flow rate, you will determine hourly NOX emissions rate (e.g., lb/hr) and with measured data of the hourly nitric acid production (tons), calculate emissions in units of the applicable emissions limit (lb/ton of 100 percent acid produced). You must operate the monitoring system and report emissions during all operating periods including unit startup and shutdown, and malfunction.
(b) Nitrogen oxides concentration continuous emissions monitoring system.
(1) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a CEMS for measuring and recording the concentration of NOX emissions in accordance with the provisions of § 60.13 and Performance Specification 2 of appendix B and Procedure 1 of appendix F of this part. You must use cylinder gas audits to fulfill the quarterly auditing requirement at section 5.1 of Procedure 1 of appendix F of this part for the NOX concentration CEMS.
(2) For the NOX concentration CEMS, use a span value, as defined in Performance Specification 2, section 3.11, of appendix B of this part, of 500 ppmv (as NO2). If you emit NOX at concentrations higher than 600 ppmv (e.g., during startup or shutdown periods), you must apply a second CEMS or dual range CEMS and a second span value equal to 125 percent of the maximum estimated NOX emission concentration to apply to the second CEMS or to the higher of the dual analyzer ranges during such periods.
(3) For conducting the relative accuracy test audits, per Performance Specification 2, section 8.4, of appendix B of this part and Procedure 1, section 5.1.1, of appendix F of this part, use either EPA Reference Method 7, 7A, 7C, 7D, or 7E of appendix A-4 of this part; EPA Reference Method 320 of appendix A of part 63 of this chapter; or ASTM D6348-03 (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17). To verify the operation of the second CEMS or the higher range of a dual analyzer CEMS described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, you need not conduct a relative accuracy test audit but only the calibration drift test initially (found in Performance Specification 2, section 8.3.1, of appendix B of this part) and the cylinder gas audit thereafter (found in Procedure 1, section 5.1.2, of appendix F of this part).
(4) If you use EPA Reference Method 7E of appendix A-4 of this part, you must mitigate loss of NO2 in water according to the requirements in paragraphs (b)(4)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section and verify performance by conducting the system bias checks required in EPA Reference Method 7E, section 8, of appendix A-4 of this part according to (b)(4)(iv) of this section, or follow the dynamic spike procedure according to paragraph (b)(4)(v) of this section.
(i) For a wet-basis measurement system, you must measure and report temperature of sample line and components (up to analyzer inlet) to demonstrate that the temperatures remain above the sample gas dew point at all times during the sampling.
(ii) You may use a dilution probe to reduce the dew point of the sample gas.
(iii) You may use a refrigerated-type condenser or similar device (e.g., permeation dryer) to remove condensate continuously from sample gas while maintaining minimal contact between condensate and sample gas.
(iv) If your analyzer measures nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) separately, you must use both NO and NO2 calibration gases. Otherwise, you must substitute NO2 calibration gas for NO calibration gas in the performance of system bias checks.
(5) Instead of a NOX concentration CEMS meeting Performance Specification 2, you may apply an FTIR CEMS meeting the requirements of Performance Specification 15 of appendix B of this part to measure NOX concentrations. Should you use an FTIR CEMS, you must replace the Relative Accuracy Test Audit requirements of Procedure 1 of appendix F of this part with the validation requirements and criteria of Performance Specification 15, sections 11.1.1 and 12.0, of appendix B of this part.
(c) Determining NOXmass emissions rate values. You must use the NOX concentration CEMS, acid production, gas flow rate monitor and other monitoring data to calculate emissions data in units of the applicable limit (lb NOX/ton of acid produced expressed as 100 percent nitric acid).
(1) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a CEMS for measuring and recording the stack gas flow rates to use in combination with data from the CEMS for measuring emissions concentrations of NOX to produce data in units of mass rate (e.g., lb/hr) of NOX on an hourly basis. You will operate and certify the continuous emissions rate monitoring system (CERMS) in accordance with the provisions of § 60.13 and Performance Specification 6 of appendix B of this part. You must comply with the following provisions in (c)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section.
(i) You must use a stack gas flow rate sensor with a full scale output of at least 125 percent of the maximum expected exhaust volumetric flow rate (see Performance Specification 6, section 8, of appendix B of this part).
(ii) For conducting the relative accuracy test audits, per Performance Specification 6, section 8.2 of appendix B of this part and Procedure 1, section 5.1.1, of appendix F of this part, you must use either EPA Reference Method 2, 2F, or 2G of appendix A-4 of this part. You may also apply Method 2H in conjunction with other velocity measurements.
(iii) You must verify that the CERMS complies with the quality assurance requirements in Procedure 1 of appendix F of this part. You must conduct relative accuracy testing to provide for calculating the relative accuracy for RATA and RAA determinations in units of lb/hour.
(2) You must determine the nitric acid production parameters (production rate and concentration) by installing, calibrating, maintaining, and operating a permanent monitoring system (e.g., weigh scale, volume flow meter, mass flow meter, tank volume) to measure and record the weight rates of nitric acid produced in tons per hour. If your nitric acid production rate measurements are for periods longer than hourly (e.g., daily values), you will determine average hourly production values, tons acid/hr, by dividing the total acid production by the number of hours of process operation for the subject measurement period. You must comply with the following provisions in (c)(2)(i) through (iv) of this section.
(i) You must verify that each component of the monitoring system has an accuracy and precision of no more than ±5 percent of full scale.
(ii) You must analyze product concentration via titration or by determining the temperature and specific gravity of the nitric acid. You may also use ASTM E1584-11 (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17), for determining the concentration of nitric acid in percent. You must determine product concentration daily.
(iii) You must use the acid concentration to express the nitric acid production as 100 percent nitric acid.
(iv) You must record the nitric acid production, expressed as 100 percent nitric acid, and the hours of operation.
(3) You must calculate hourly NOX emissions rates in units of the standard (lb/ton acid) for each hour of process operation. For process operating periods for which there is little or no acid production (e.g., startup or shutdown), you must use the average hourly acid production rate determined from the data collected over the previous 30 days of normal acid production periods (see § 60.75a).
(d) Continuous monitoring system. For each continuous monitoring system, including NOX concentration measurement, volumetric flow rate measurement, and nitric acid production measurement equipment, you must meet the requirements in paragraphs (d)(1) through (3) of this section.
(1) You must operate the monitoring system and collect data at all required intervals at all times the affected facility is operating except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods as defined in appendix F, sections 4 and 5, of this part, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods, and required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities including, as applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments.
(2) You may not use data recorded during monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods, or required monitoring system quality assurance or control activities in calculations used to report emissions or operating levels. You must use all the data collected during all other periods in calculating emissions and the status of compliance with the applicable emissions limit in accordance with § 60.72a(a).
(e) Initial performance testing. You must conduct an initial performance test to demonstrate compliance with the NOX emissions limit under § 60.72a(a) beginning in the calendar month following initial certification of the NOX and flow rate monitoring CEMS. The initial performance test consists of collection of hourly NOX average concentration, mass flow rate recorded with the certified NOX concentration and flow rate CEMS and the corresponding acid generation (tons) data for all of the hours of operation for the first 30 days beginning on the first day of the first month following completion of the CEMS installation and certification as described above. You must assure that the CERMS meets all of the data quality assurance requirements as per § 60.13 and appendix F, Procedure 1, of this part and you must use the data from the CERMS for this compliance determination.