40 CFR § 60.84 - Emission monitoring.

§ 60.84 Emission monitoring.

(a) A continuous monitoring system for the measurement of sulfur dioxide shall be installed, calibrated, maintained, and operated by the owner or operator. The pollutant gas used to prepare calibration gas mixtures under Performance Specification 2 and for calibration checks under § 60.13(d), shall be sulfur dioxide (SO2). Method 8 shall be used for conducting monitoring system performance evaluations under § 60.13(c) except that only the sulfur dioxide portion of the Method 8 results shall be used. The span value shall be set at 1000 ppm of sulfur dioxide.

(b) The owner or operator shall establish a conversion factor for the purpose of converting monitoring data into units of the applicable standard (kg/metric ton, lb/ton). The conversion factor shall be determined, as a minimum, three times daily by measuring the concentration of sulfur dioxide entering the converter using suitable methods (e.g., the Reich test, National Air Pollution Control Administration Publication No. 999-AP-13) and calculating the appropriate conversion factor for each eight-hour period as follows:

CF = k[(1.000−0.015r)/(r−s)]
CF = conversion factor (kg/metric ton per ppm, lb/ton per ppm).
k = constant derived from material balance. For determining CF in metric units, k = 0.0653. For determining CF in English units, k = 0.1306.
r = percentage of sulfur dioxide by volume entering the gas converter. Appropriate corrections must be made for air injection plants subject to the Administrator's approval.
s = percentage of sulfur dioxide by volume in the emissions to the atmosphere determined by the continuous monitoring system required under paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) The owner or operator shall record all conversion factors and values under paragraph (b) of this section from which they were computed (i.e., CF, r, and s).

(d) Alternatively, a source that processes elemental sulfur or an ore that contains elemental sulfur and uses air to supply oxygen may use the following continuous emission monitoring approach and calculation procedures in determining SO2 emission rates in terms of the standard. This procedure is not required, but is an alternative that would alleviate problems encountered in the measurement of gas velocities or production rate. Continuous emission monitoring systems for measuring SO2, O2, and CO2 (if required) shall be installed, calibrated, maintained, and operated by the owner or operator and subjected to the certification procedures in Performance Specifications 2 and 3. The calibration procedure and span value for the SO2 monitor shall be as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. The span value for CO2 (if required) shall be 10 percent and for O2 shall be 20.9 percent (air). A conversion factor based on process rate data is not necessary. Calculate the SO2 emission rate as follows:

Es = (Cs S)/[0.265 − (0.0126 %O2) − (A %CO2)]
Es = emission rate of SO2, kg/metric ton (lb/ton) of 100 percent of H2SO4 produced.
Cs = concentration of SO2, kg/dscm (lb/dscf).
S = acid production rate factor, 368 dscm/metric ton (11,800 dscf/ton) of 100 percent H2SO4 produced.
%O2 = oxygen concentration, percent dry basis.
A = auxiliary fuel factor,
= 0.00 for no fuel.
= 0.0226 for methane.
= 0.0217 for natural gas.
= 0.0196 for propane.
= 0.0172 for No 2 oil.
= 0.0161 for No 6 oil.
= 0.0148 for coal.
= 0.0126 for coke.
%CO2 = carbon dioxide concentration, percent dry basis.

It is necessary in some cases to convert measured concentration units to other units for these calculations:

Use the following table for such conversions:
From - To - Multiply by -
g/scm kg/scm 10−3
mg/scm kg/scm 10−6
ppm (SO2) kg/scm 2.660 × 10−6
ppm (SO2) lb/scf 1.660 × 10−7

(e) For the purpose of reports under § 60.7(c), periods of excess emissions shall be all three-hour periods (or the arithmetic average of three consecutive one-hour periods) during which the integrated average sulfur dioxide emissions exceed the applicable standards under § 60.82.

[39 FR 20794, June 14, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 46258, Oct. 6, 1975; 48 FR 23611, May 25, 1983; 48 FR 4700, Sept. 29, 1983; 48 FR 48669, Oct. 20, 1983; 54 FR 6666, Feb. 14, 1989; 65 FR 61753, Oct. 17, 2000; 79 FR 11250, Feb. 27, 2014]