40 CFR § 63.134 - Process wastewater provisions - surface impoundments.
(a) For each surface impoundment that receives, manages, or treats a Group 1 wastewater stream or a residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, the owner or operator shall comply with the requirements of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section.
(b) The owner or operator shall operate and maintain on each surface impoundment either a cover (e.g., air-supported structure or rigid cover) and a closed-vent system that routes the organic hazardous air pollutants vapors vented from the surface impoundment to a control device in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section, or a floating flexible membrane cover as specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
(1) The cover and all openings shall meet the following requirements:
(i) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, the cover and all openings (e.g., access hatches, sampling ports, and gauge wells) shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements specified in § 63.148 of this subpart.
(ii) Each opening shall be maintained in a closed position (e.g., covered by a lid) at all times that a Group 1 wastewater stream or residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream is in the surface impoundment except when it is necessary to use the opening for sampling, removal, or for equipment inspection, maintenance, or repair.
(iii) The cover shall be used at all times that a Group 1 wastewater stream or residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream is in the surface impoundment except during removal of treatment residuals in accordance with 40 CFR 268.4 or closure of the surface impoundment in accordance with 40 CFR 264.228.
(2) Floating flexible membrane covers shall meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (b)(2)(vii) of this section.
(i) The floating flexible cover shall be designed to float on the liquid surface during normal operations, and to form a continuous barrier over the entire surface area of the liquid.
(ii) The cover shall be fabricated from a synthetic membrane material that is either:
(A) High density polyethylene (HDPE) with a thickness no less than 2.5 millimeters (100 mils); or
(B) A material or a composite of different materials determined to have both organic permeability properties that are equivalent to those of the material listed in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, and chemical and physical properties that maintain the material integrity for the intended service life of the material.
(iii) The cover shall be installed in a manner such that there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces between cover section seams or between the interface of the cover edge and its foundation mountings.
(iv) Except as provided for in paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section, each opening in the floating membrane cover shall be equipped with a closure device designed to operate such that when the closure device is secured in the closed position there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces in the closure device or between the perimeter of the cover opening and the closure device.
(v) The floating membrane cover may be equipped with one or more emergency cover drains for removal of stormwater. Each emergency cover drain shall be equipped with a slotted membrane fabric cover that covers at least 90 percent of the area of the opening or a flexible fabric sleeve seal.
(vi) The closure devices shall be made of suitable materials that will minimize exposure of organic hazardous air pollutants to the atmosphere, to the extent practical, and will maintain the integrity of the equipment throughout its intended service life. Factors to be considered in designing the closure devices shall include: The effects of any contact with the liquid and its vapor managed in the surface impoundment; the effects of outdoor exposure to wind, moisture, and sunlight; and the operating practices used for the surface impoundment on which the floating membrane cover is installed.
(vii) Whenever a Group 1 wastewater stream or residual from a Group 1 wastewater stream is in the surface impoundment, the floating membrane cover shall float on the liquid and each closure device shall be secured in the closed position. Opening of closure devices or removal of the cover is allowed to provide access to the surface impoundment for performing routine inspection, maintenance, or other activities needed for normal operations and/or to remove accumulated sludge or other residues from the bottom of surface impoundment. Openings shall be maintained in accordance with § 63.148 of this subpart.
(3) The control device shall be designed, operated, and inspected in accordance with § 63.139 of this subpart.
(4) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of this section, the closed-vent system shall be inspected in accordance with § 63.148 of this subpart.
(5) For any cover and closed-vent system that is operated and maintained under negative pressure, the owner or operator is not required to comply with the requirements specified in § 63.148 of this subpart.
(c) Each surface impoundment shall be inspected initially, and semi-annually thereafter, for improper work practices and control equipment failures in accordance with § 63.143 of this subpart.
(1) For surface impoundments, improper work practice includes, but is not limited to, leaving open any access hatch or other opening when such hatch or opening is not in use.
(2) For surface impoundments, control equipment failure includes, but is not limited to, any time a joint, lid, cover, or door has a crack or gap, or is broken.
(d) Except as provided in § 63.140 of this subpart, when an improper work practice or a control equipment failure is identified, first efforts at repair shall be made no later than 5 calendar days after identification and repair shall be completed within 45 calendar days after identification.