40 CFR § 63.2493 - What requirements must I meet for process vents, storage tanks, or equipment that are in ethylene oxide service?

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§ 63.2493 What requirements must I meet for process vents, storage tanks, or equipment that are in ethylene oxide service?

This section applies beginning no later than the compliance dates specified in § 63.2445(i). In order to demonstrate compliance with the emission limits and work practice standards specified in Tables 1, 2, and 4 to this subpart for process vents and storage tanks in ethylene oxide service, you must meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section. In order to demonstrate compliance with the requirements specified in Table 6 to this subpart for equipment in ethylene oxide service, you must meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section.

(a) Initial compliance. For initial compliance, you must comply with paragraphs (a)(1) through (4) of this section, as applicable.

(1) If you choose to reduce emissions of ethylene oxide by venting emissions through a closed-vent system to a flare as specified in Table 1, 2, or 4 to this subpart, then you must comply with § 63.2450(e)(4) and (6) and the requirements in § 63.983, and you must conduct the initial visible emissions demonstration required by § 63.670(h) of subpart CC as specified in § 63.2450(e)(5).

(2) If you choose to reduce emissions of ethylene oxide by venting emissions through a closed-vent system to a non-flare control device that reduces ethylene oxide by greater than or equal to 99.9 percent by weight as specified in Table 1, 2, or 4 to this subpart, then you must comply with § 63.2450(e)(4) and (6) and the requirements in § 63.983, and you must comply with paragraphs (a)(2)(i) through (viii) of this section.

(i) Conduct an initial performance test of the control device that is used to comply with the percent reduction requirement at the inlet and outlet of the control device. For purposes of compliance with this paragraph (a)(2), you may not use a design evaluation.

(ii) Conduct the performance test according to the procedures in §§ 63.997 and 63.2450(g). Use Method 18 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-6, or Method 320 of appendix A to this part to determine the ethylene oxide concentration. Use Method 1 or 1A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1, to select the sampling sites at each sampling location. Determine the gas volumetric flowrate using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-2. Use Method 4 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-3, to convert the volumetric flowrate to a dry basis.

(iii) Calculate the mass emission rate of ethylene oxide entering the control device and exiting the control device using Equations 1 and 2 to this paragraph (a)(2)(iii).

EEtO,inlet = K CEtO,inlet MEtO Qinlet (Eq. 1)
EEtO,outlet = K CEtO,outlet MEtO Qoutlet (Eq. 2)
Where:
EEtO,inlet, EEtO,outlet = Mass rate of ethylene oxide at the inlet and outlet of the control device, respectively, kilogram per hour.
CEtO,inlet, CEtO,outlet = Concentration of ethylene oxide in the gas stream at the inlet and outlet of the control device, respectively, dry basis, parts per million by volume.
MEtO = Molecular weight of ethylene oxide, 44.05 grams per gram-mole.
Qinlet, Qoutlet = Flow rate of the gas stream at the inlet and outlet of the control device, respectively, dry standard cubic meter per minute.
K = Constant, 2.494 × 10−6 (parts per million)−1 (gram-mole per standard cubic meter) (kilogram per gram) (minutes per hour), where standard temperature (gram-mole per standard cubic meter) is 20 °C.

(iv) Calculate the percent reduction from the control device using Equation 3 to this paragraph (a)(2)(iv). You have demonstrated initial compliance if the overall reduction of ethylene oxide is greater than or equal to 99.9 percent by weight.

Percent reduction = (EEtO,inlet−EEtO,outlet)/EEtO,inlet * 100 (Eq. 3)
Where:
EEtO,inlet, EEtO,outlet = Mass rate of ethylene oxide at the inlet and outlet of the control device, respectively, kilogram per hour, calculated using Equations 1 and 2 to paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section.

(v) If a new control device is installed, then conduct a performance test of the new device following the procedures in paragraphs (a)(2)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(vi) If you vent emissions through a closed-vent system to a scrubber, then you must establish operating parameter limits by monitoring the operating parameters specified in paragraphs (a)(2)(vi)(A) through (C) of this section during the performance test.

(A) Scrubber liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G), determined from the total scrubber liquid inlet flow rate and the exit gas flow rate. Determine the average L/G during the performance test as the average of the test run averages.

(B) Scrubber liquid pH of the liquid in the reactant tank. The pH may be measured at any point between the discharge from the scrubber column and the inlet to the reactant tank. Determine the average pH during the performance test as the average of the test run averages.

(C) Temperature of the water entering the scrubber column. The temperature may be measured at any point after the heat exchanger and prior to entering the top of the scrubber column. Determine the average inlet water temperature as the average of the test run averages.

(vii) If you vent emissions through a closed-vent system to a thermal oxidizer, then you must establish operating parameter limits by monitoring the operating parameters specified in paragraphs (a)(2)(vii)(A) and (B) of this section during the performance test.

(A) Combustion chamber temperature. Determine the average combustion chamber temperature during the performance test as the average of the test run averages.

(B) Flue gas flow rate. Determine the average flue gas flow rate during the performance test as the average of the test run averages.

(viii) If you vent emissions through a closed-vent system to a control device other than a flare, scrubber, or thermal oxidizer, then you must notify the Administrator of the operating parameters that you plan to monitor during the performance test prior to establishing operating parameter limits for the control device.

(3) If you choose to reduce emissions of ethylene oxide by venting emissions through a closed-vent system to a non-flare control device that reduces ethylene oxide to less than 1 ppmv as specified in Table 1, 2, or 4 to this subpart, then you must comply with § 63.2450(e)(4) and (6) and the requirements in § 63.983, and you must comply with either paragraph (a)(3)(i) or (ii) of this section.

(i) Install an FTIR CEMS meeting the requirements of Performance Specification 15 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix B, to continuously monitor the ethylene oxide concentration at the exit of the control device. Comply with the requirements specified in § 63.2450(j) for your CEMS.

(ii) If you do not install a CEMS under paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section, you must comply with paragraphs (a)(3)(ii)(A) through (C) of this section.

(A) Conduct an initial performance test of the control device that is used to comply with the concentration requirement at the outlet of the control device.

(B) Conduct the performance test according to the procedures in §§ 63.997 and 63.2450(g). Use Method 18 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-6, or Method 320 of appendix A to this part to determine the ethylene oxide concentration. You have demonstrated initial compliance if the ethylene oxide concentration is less than 1 ppmv.

(C) Comply with the requirements specified in paragraphs (a)(2)(v) through (viii) of this section, as applicable.

(4) If you choose to reduce emissions of ethylene oxide by venting emissions through a closed-vent system to a non-flare control device that reduces ethylene oxide to less than 5 pounds per year for all combined process vents as specified in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart, then you must comply with § 63.2450(e)(4) and (6) and the requirements in § 63.983, and you must comply with paragraphs (a)(4)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) Conduct an initial performance test of the control device that is used to comply with the mass emission limit requirement at the outlet of the control device.

(ii) Conduct the performance test according to the procedures in §§ 63.997 and 63.2450(g). Use Method 18 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-6, or Method 320 of appendix A to this part to determine the ethylene oxide concentration. Use Method 1 or 1A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1, to select the sampling site. Determine the gas volumetric flowrate using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-2. Use Method 4 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-3, to convert the volumetric flowrate to a dry basis.

(iii) Calculate the mass emission rate of ethylene oxide exiting the control device using Equation 2 to paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section. You have demonstrated initial compliance if the ethylene oxide from all process vents (controlled and uncontrolled) is less than 5 pounds per year when combined.

(iv) Comply with the requirements specified in paragraphs (a)(2)(v) through (viii) of this section, as applicable.

(b) Continuous compliance. For continuous compliance, you must comply with paragraphs (b)(1) through (6) of this section, as applicable.

(1) If you choose to reduce emissions of ethylene oxide by venting emissions through a closed-vent system to a flare as specified in Table 1, 2, or 4 to this subpart, then you must comply with the requirements in §§ 63.983 and 63.2450(e)(4) through (6).

(2) Continuously monitor the ethylene oxide concentration at the exit of the control device using an FTIR CEMS meeting the requirements of Performance Specification 15 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix B, and § 63.2450(j). If you use an FTIR CEMS, you do not need to conduct the performance testing required in paragraph (b)(3) of this section or the operating parameter monitoring required in paragraphs (b)(4) through (6) of this section.

(3) Conduct a performance test no later than 60 months after the previous performance test and reestablish operating parameter limits following the procedures in paragraph (a)(2) through (4) of this section. The Administrator may request a repeat performance test at any time. For purposes of compliance with this paragraph (b)(3), you may not use a design evaluation.

(4) If you vent emissions through a closed-vent system to a scrubber, then you must comply with § 63.2450(e)(4) and (6) and the requirements in § 63.983, and you must meet the operating parameter limits specified in paragraphs (b)(4)(i) through (v) of this section.

(i) Minimum scrubber liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G), equal to the average L/G measured during the most recent performance test. Determine total scrubber liquid inlet flow rate with a flow sensor with a minimum accuracy of at least ±5 percent over the normal range of flow measured, or 1.9 liters per minute (0.5 gallons per minute), whichever is greater. Determine exit gas flow rate with a flow sensor with a minimum accuracy of at least ±5 percent over the normal range of flow measured, or 280 liters per minute (10 cubic feet per minute), whichever is greater. Compliance with the minimum L/G operating limit must be determined continuously on a 1-hour block basis.

(ii) Maximum scrubber liquid pH of the liquid in the reactant tank, equal to the average pH measured during the most recent performance test. Compliance with the pH operating limit must be determined continuously on a 1-hour block basis. Use a pH sensor with a minimum accuracy of ±0.2 pH units.

(iii) Pressure drop across the scrubber column, within the pressure drop range specified by the manufacturer or established based on engineering analysis. Compliance with the pressure drop operating limit must be determined continuously on a 1-hour block basis. Use pressure sensors with a minimum accuracy of ±5 percent over the normal operating range or 0.12 kilopascals, whichever is greater.

(iv) Maximum temperature of the water entering the scrubber column, equal to the average temperature measured during the most recent performance test. Compliance with the inlet water temperature operating limit must be determined continuously on a 1-hour block basis. Use a temperature sensor with a minimum accuracy of ±1 percent over the normal range of the temperature measured, expressed in degrees Celsius, or 2.8 degrees Celsius, whichever is greater.

(v) Liquid feed pressure to the scrubber column within the feed pressure range specified by the manufacturer or established based on engineering analysis. Compliance with the liquid feed pressure operating limit must be determined continuously on a 1-hour block basis. Use a pressure sensor with a minimum accuracy of ±5 percent over the normal operating range or 0.12 kilopascals, whichever is greater.

(5) If you vent emissions through a closed-vent system to a thermal oxidizer, then you must comply with § 63.2450(e)(4) and (6) and the requirements in § 63.983, and you must meet the operating parameter limits specified in paragraphs (b)(5)(i) and (ii) of this section and the requirements in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section.

(i) Minimum combustion chamber temperature, equal to the average combustion chamber temperature measured during the most recent performance test. Determine combustion chamber temperature with a temperature sensor with a minimum accuracy of at least ±1 percent over the normal range of temperature measured, expressed in degrees Celsius, or 2.8 degrees Celsius, whichever is greater. Compliance with the minimum combustion chamber temperature operating limit must be determined continuously on a 1-hour block basis.

(ii) Maximum flue gas flow rate, equal to the average flue gas flow rate measured during the most recent performance test. Determine flue gas flow rate with a flow sensor with a minimum accuracy of at least ±5 percent over the normal range of flow measured, or 280 liters per minute (10 cubic feet per minute), whichever is greater. Compliance with the maximum flue gas flow rate operating limit must be determined continuously on a 1-hour block basis.

(iii) You must maintain the thermal oxidizer in accordance with good combustion practices that ensure proper combustion. Good combustion practices include, but are not limited to, proper burner maintenance, proper burner alignment, proper fuel to air distribution and mixing, routine inspection, and preventative maintenance.

(6) If you vent emissions through a closed-vent system to a control device other than a flare, scrubber, or thermal oxidizer, then you must comply with § 63.2450(e)(4) and (6) and the requirements in § 63.983, and you must monitor the operating parameters identified in paragraph (a)(2)(viii) of this section and meet the established operating parameter limits to ensure continuous compliance. The frequency of monitoring and averaging time will be determined based upon the information provided to the Administrator.

(c) Pressure vessels. If you have a storage tank in ethylene oxide service that is considered a pressure vessel as defined in as defined in § 63.2550(i), then you must operate and maintain the pressure vessel, as specified in paragraphs (c)(1) through (5) of this section.

(1) The pressure vessel must be designed to operate with no detectable emissions at all times.

(2) Monitor each point on the pressure vessel through which ethylene oxide could potentially be emitted by conducting initial and annual performance tests using Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7.

(3) Each instrument reading greater than 500 ppmv is a deviation.

(4) Estimate the flow rate and total regulated material emissions from the defect. Assume the pressure vessel has been emitting for half of the time since the last performance test, unless other information supports a different assumption.

(5) Whenever ethylene oxide is in the pressure vessel, you must operate the pressure vessel as a closed system that vents through a closed vent system to a control device as specified in paragraphs (c)(5)(i) through (iii) of this section, as applicable.

(i) For closed vent systems, comply with § 63.2450(e)(4) and (6) and the requirements in § 63.983.

(ii) For a non-flare control device, comply with requirements as specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(iii) For a flare, comply with the requirements of § 63.2450(e)(5).

(d) Equipment in ethylene oxide service. Except as specified in paragraphs (d)(1) through (4) and (e) of this section, for equipment in ethylene oxide service as defined in § 63.2550(i), you must comply with the requirements of subpart UU or H of this part, or 40 CFR part 65, subpart F.

(1) For pumps in ethylene oxide service, you must comply with the requirements in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) The instrument reading that defines a leak for pumps is 1,000 parts per million or greater.

(ii) The monitoring period for pumps is monthly.

(iii) When a leak is detected, it must be repaired as soon as practicable, but not later than 15 calendar days after it is detected.

(2) For connectors in ethylene oxide service, you must comply with the requirements in paragraphs (d)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) The instrument reading that defines a leak for connectors is 500 parts per million or greater.

(ii) The monitoring period for connectors is once every 12 months.

(iii) When a leak is detected, it must be repaired as soon as practicable, but not later than 15 calendar days after it is detected.

(3) For each light liquid pump or connector in ethylene oxide service that is added to an affected source, and for each light liquid pump or connector in ethylene oxide service that replaces a light liquid pump or connector in ethylene oxide service, you must initially monitor for leaks within 5 days after initial startup of the equipment.

(4) Pressure relief devices in ethylene oxide service must comply with the requirements in § 63.2480(e) and (f), except as specified in paragraphs (d)(4)(i) through (v) of this section.

(i) The second sentence in § 63.2480(e)(3)(iv) does not apply.

(ii) Section 63.2480(e)(3)(v) does not apply.

(iii) Section 63.2480(e)(6)(ii) does not apply.

(iv) Any release event from an affected pressure relief device is a deviation of the pressure release management work practice standards.

(v) Replace all references to § 63.2445(g) with § 63.2445(h).

(e) Non-applicable referenced provisions. The referenced provisions specified in paragraphs (e)(1) through (15) of this section do not apply when demonstrating compliance with this section.

(1) Section 63.163(c)(3) of subpart H.

(2) Section 63.163(e) of subpart H.

(3) The second sentence of § 63.181(d)(5)(i) of subpart H.

(4) Section 63.1026(b)(3) of subpart UU.

(5) Section 63.1026(e) of subpart UU.

(6) The phrase “(except during periods of startup, shutdown, or malfunction)” from § 63.1028(e)(1)(i)(A) of subpart UU.

(7) The phrase “(except during periods of startup, shutdown, or malfunction)” from § 63.1031(b)(1) of subpart UU.

(8) The second sentence of § 65.105(f)(4)(i) of this chapter.

(9) Section 65.107(b)(3) of this chapter.

(10) Section 65.107(e) of this chapter.

(11) The phrase “(except during periods of start-up, shutdown, or malfunction)” from § 65.109(e)(1)(i)(A) of this chapter.

(12) The phrase “(except during periods of start-up, shutdown, or malfunction)” from § 65.112(b)(1) of this chapter.

(13) The last sentence of § 65.115(b)(1) of this chapter.

(14) The last sentence of § 65.115(b)(2) of this chapter.

(15) For flares complying with § 63.2450(e)(5), the following provisions do not apply:

(i) Section 63.172(d) of subpart H;

(ii) Section 63.180(e) of subpart H;

(iii) Section 63.181(g)(1)(iii) of subpart H;

(iv) The phrase “including periods when a flare pilot light system does not have a flame” from § 63.181(g)(2)(i) of subpart H;

(v) Section 63.1034(b)(2)(iii) of subpart H; and

(vi) Section 65.115(b)(2) of this chapter.

(16) Requirements for maintenance vents in § 63.2450(v).

[85 FR 49147, Aug. 12, 2020]

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