40 CFR § 63.3165 - How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

§ 63.3165 How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine capture efficiency as part of the performance test required by §§ 63.3160 and 63.3163. For purposes of this subpart, a spray booth air seal is not considered a natural draft opening in a PTE or a temporary total enclosure provided you demonstrate that the direction of air movement across the interface between the spray booth air seal and the spray booth is into the spray booth. For purposes of this subpart, a bake oven air seal is not considered a natural draft opening in a PTE or a temporary total enclosure provided you demonstrate that the direction of air movement across the interface between the bake oven air seal and the bake oven is into the bake oven. You may use lightweight strips of fabric or paper, or smoke tubes to make such demonstrations as part of showing that your capture system is a PTE or conducting a capture efficiency test using a temporary total enclosure. You cannot count air flowing from a spray booth air seal into a spray booth as air flowing through a natural draft opening into a PTE or into a temporary total enclosure unless you elect to treat that spray booth air seal as a natural draft opening. You cannot count air flowing from a bake oven air seal into a bake oven as air flowing through a natural draft opening into a PTE or into a temporary total enclosure unless you elect to treat that bake oven air seal as a natural draft opening.

(a) Assuming 100 percent capture efficiency. You may assume the capture system efficiency is 100 percent if both of the conditions in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section are met:

(1) The capture system meets the criteria in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 for a PTE and directs all the exhaust gases from the enclosure to an add-on control device.

(2) All coatings and thinners used in the coating operation are applied within the capture system, and coating solvent flash-off and coating curing and drying occurs within the capture system. For example, this criterion is not met if parts enter the open shop environment when being moved between a spray booth and a curing oven.

(b) Measuring capture efficiency. If the capture system does not meet both of the criteria in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section, then you must use one of the five procedures described in paragraphs (c) through (g) of this section to measure capture efficiency. The capture efficiency measurements use TVH capture efficiency as a surrogate for organic HAP capture efficiency. For the protocols in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, the capture efficiency measurement must consist of three test runs. Each test run must be at least 3 hours duration or the length of a production run, whichever is longer, up to 8 hours. For the purposes of this test, a production run means the time required for a single part to go from the beginning to the end of production, which includes surface preparation activities and drying or curing time.

(c) Liquid-to-uncaptured-gas protocol using a temporary total enclosure or building enclosure. The liquid-to-uncaptured-gas protocol compares the mass of liquid TVH in materials used in the coating operation to the mass of TVH emissions not captured by the emission capture system. Use a temporary total enclosure or a building enclosure and the procedures in paragraphs (c)(1) through (6) of this section to measure emission capture system efficiency using the liquid-to-uncaptured-gas protocol.

(1) Either use a building enclosure or construct an enclosure around the coating operation where coatings and thinners are applied, and all areas where emissions from these applied coatings and thinners subsequently occur, such as flash-off, curing, and drying areas. The areas of the coating operation where capture devices collect emissions for routing to an add-on control device, such as the entrance and exit areas of an oven or spray booth, must also be inside the enclosure. The enclosure must meet the applicable definition of a temporary total enclosure or building enclosure in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51.

(2) Use Method 204A or F of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 to determine the mass fraction of TVH liquid input from each coating and thinner used in the coating operation during each capture efficiency test run. To make the determination, substitute TVH for each occurrence of the term volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the methods.

(3) Use Equation 1 of this section to calculate the total mass of TVH liquid input from all the coatings and thinners used in the coating operation during each capture efficiency test run.

${\mathrm{TVH}}_{\mathrm{used}}=\sum _{i=1}^{n}\left({\mathrm{TVH}}_{i}\right)\left({\mathrm{Vol}}_{i}\right)\left({D}_{i}\right)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. 1)}$

Where:
TVHi = Mass fraction of TVH in coating or thinner, i, used in the coating operation during the capture efficiency test run, kg TVH per kg material.
Voli = Total volume of coating or thinner, i, used in the coating operation during the capture efficiency test run, liters.
Di = Density of coating or thinner, i, kg material per liter material.
n = Number of different coatings and thinners used in the coating operation during the capture efficiency test run.

(4) Use Method 204D or E of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 to measure the total mass, kg, of TVH emissions that are not captured by the emission capture system; they are measured as they exit the temporary total enclosure or building enclosure during each capture efficiency test run. To make the measurement, substitute TVH for each occurrence of the term VOC in the methods.

(i) Use Method 204D if the enclosure is a temporary total enclosure.

(ii) Use Method 204E if the enclosure is a building enclosure. During the capture efficiency measurement, all organic compound emitting operations inside the building enclosure, other than the coating operation for which capture efficiency is being determined, must be shut down, but all fans and blowers must be operating normally.

(5) For each capture efficiency test run, determine the percent capture efficiency of the emission capture system using Equation 2 of this section:

$\mathrm{CE}=\frac{\left({\mathrm{TVH}}_{\mathrm{used}}-{\mathrm{TVH}}_{\mathrm{uncaptured}}\right)}{{\mathrm{TVH}}_{\mathrm{used}}}×100\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. 2)}$

Where:
CE = Capture efficiency of the emission capture system vented to the add-on control device, percent.
TVH used = Total mass of TVH liquid input used in the coating operation during the capture efficiency test run, kg.
TVH uncaptured = Total mass of TVH that is not captured by the emission capture system and that exits from the temporary total enclosure or building enclosure during the capture efficiency test run, kg.

(6) Determine the capture efficiency of the emission capture system as the average of the capture efficiencies measured in the three test runs.

(d) Gas-to-gas protocol using a temporary total enclosure or a building enclosure. The gas-to-gas protocol compares the mass of TVH emissions captured by the emission capture system to the mass of TVH emissions not captured. Use a temporary total enclosure or a building enclosure and the procedures in paragraphs (d)(1) through (5) of this section to measure emission capture system efficiency using the gas-to-gas protocol.

(1) Either use a building enclosure or construct an enclosure around the coating operation where coatings and thinners are applied, and all areas where emissions from these applied coatings and thinners subsequently occur, such as flash-off, curing, and drying areas. The areas of the coating operation where capture devices collect emissions generated by the coating operation for routing to an add-on control device, such as the entrance and exit areas of an oven or a spray booth, must also be inside the enclosure. The enclosure must meet the applicable definition of a temporary total enclosure or building enclosure in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51.

(2) Use Method 204B or C of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 to measure the total mass, kg, of TVH emissions captured by the emission capture system during each capture efficiency test run as measured at the inlet to the add-on control device. To make the measurement, substitute TVH for each occurrence of the term VOC in the methods.

(i) The sampling points for the Method 204B or C measurement must be upstream from the add-on control device and must represent total emissions routed from the capture system and entering the add-on control device.

(ii) If multiple emission streams from the capture system enter the add-on control device without a single common duct, then the emissions entering the add-on control device must be simultaneously or sequentially measured in each duct, and the total emissions entering the add-on control device must be determined.

(3) Use Method 204D or E of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 to measure the total mass, kg, of TVH emissions that are not captured by the emission capture system; they are measured as they exit the temporary total enclosure or building enclosure during each capture efficiency test run. To make the measurement, substitute TVH for each occurrence of the term VOC in the methods.

(i) Use Method 204D if the enclosure is a temporary total enclosure.

(ii) Use Method 204E if the enclosure is a building enclosure. During the capture efficiency measurement, all organic compound emitting operations inside the building enclosure, other than the coating operation for which capture efficiency is being determined, must be shut down, but all fans and blowers must be operating normally.

(4) For each capture efficiency test run, determine the percent capture efficiency of the emission capture system using Equation 3 of this section:

$\mathrm{CE}=\frac{{\mathrm{TVH}}_{\mathrm{captured}}}{\left({\mathrm{TVH}}_{\mathrm{captured}}+{\mathrm{TVH}}_{\mathrm{uncaptured}}\right)}×100\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. 3)}$

Where:
CE = Capture efficiency of the emission capture system vented to the add-on control device, percent.
TVHcaptured = Total mass of TVH captured by the emission capture system as measured at the inlet to the add-on control device during the emission capture efficiency test run, kg.
TVHuncaptured = Total mass of TVH that is not captured by the emission capture system and that exits from the temporary total enclosure or building enclosure during the capture efficiency test run, kg.

(5) Determine the capture efficiency of the emission capture system as the average of the capture efficiencies measured in the three test runs.

(e) Panel testing to determine the capture efficiency of flash-off or bake oven emissions. You may conduct panel testing to determine the capture efficiency of flash-off or bake oven emissions using ASTM Method D5087-02, “Standard Test Method for Determining Amount of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Released from Solventborne Automotive Coatings and Available for Removal in a VOC Control Device (Abatement)” (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14), ASTM Method D6266-00a (2017), “Test Method for Determining the Amount of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Released from Waterborne Automotive Coatings and Available for Removal in a VOC Control Device (Abatement)” (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14), or the guidelines presented in “Protocol for Determining the Daily Volatile Organic Compound Emission Rate of Automobile and Light-Duty Truck Primer-Surfacer and Topcoat” EPA-453/R-08-002 (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14). You may conduct panel testing on representative coatings as described in “Protocol for Determining the Daily Volatile Organic Compound Emission Rate of Automobile and Light-Duty Truck Primer-Surfacer and Topcoat” EPA-453/R-08-002 (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14).

(1) Calculate the volume of coating solids deposited per volume of coating used for coating, i, or the composite volume of coating solids deposited per volume of coating used for the group of coatings including coating, i, used during the month in the spray booth(s) preceding the flash-off area or bake oven for which the panel test is conducted using Equation 5 of this section:

${V}_{\mathrm{sdep},i}=\left({V}_{s,i}\right)\left({\mathrm{TE}}_{c,i}\right)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. 5)}$

Where:
Vsdep, i = Volume of coating solids deposited per volume of coating used for coating, i, or composite volume of coating solids deposited per volume of coating used for the group of coatings including coating, i, in the spray booth(s) preceding the flash-off area or bake oven for which the panel test is conducted, liter of coating solids deposited per liter of coating used.
Vs, i = Volume fraction of coating solids for coating, i, or average volume fraction of coating solids for the group of coatings including coating, i, liter coating solids per liter coating, determined according to § 63.3161(f).
TEc, i = Transfer efficiency of coating, i, or average transfer efficiency for the group of coatings including coating, i, in the spray booth(s) for the flash-off area or bake oven for which the panel test is conducted determined according to § 63.3161(g), expressed as a decimal, for example 60 percent must be expressed as 0.60. (Transfer efficiency also may be determined by testing representative coatings. The same coating groupings may be appropriate for both transfer efficiency testing and panel testing. In this case, all of the coatings in a panel test grouping would have the same transfer efficiency.)

(2) Calculate the mass of VOC per volume of coating for coating, i, or the composite mass of VOC per volume of coating for the group of coatings including coating, i, used during the month in the spray booth(s) preceding the flash-off area or bake oven for which the panel test is conducted, kg, using Equation 6 of this section:

${\mathrm{VOC}}_{i}=\left({D}_{c,i}\right)\left(W{\mathrm{voc}}_{c,i}\right)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. 6)}$

Where:
VOCi = Mass of VOC per volume of coating for coating, i, or composite mass of VOC per volume of coating for the group of coatings including coating, i, used during the month in the spray booth(s) preceding the flash-off area or bake oven for which the panel test is conducted, kg VOC per liter coating.
Dc,i = Density of coating, i, or average density of the group of coatings, including coating, i, kg coating per liter coating, density determined according to § 63.3151(b).
Wvocc,i = Mass fraction of VOC in coating, i, or average mass fraction of VOC for the group of coatings, including coating, i, kg VOC per kg coating, determined by EPA Method 24 (appendix A-7 to 40 CFR part 60) or the guidelines for combining analytical VOC content and formulation solvent content presented in Section 9 of “Protocol for Determining the Daily Volatile Organic Compound Emission Rate of Automobile and Light-Duty Truck Primer-Surfacer and Topcoat,” EPA-453/R-08-002 (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14).

(3) As an alternative, you may choose to express the results of your panel tests in units of mass of VOC per mass of coating solids deposited and convert such results to a percent using Equation 7 of this section. If you panel test representative coatings, then you may convert the panel test result for each representative coating either to a unique percent capture efficiency for each coating grouped with that representative coating by using coating specific values for the mass of coating solids deposited per mass of coating used, mass fraction VOC, transfer efficiency, and mass fraction solids in Equations 7 and 8 of this section; or to a composite percent capture efficiency for the group of coatings by using composite values for the group of coatings for the mass of coating solids deposited per mass of coating used and average values for the mass of VOC per volume of coating, average values for the group of coatings for mass fraction VOC, transfer efficiency, and mass fraction solids in Equations 7 and 8 of this section. If you panel test each coating, then you must convert the panel test result for each coating to a unique percent capture efficiency for that coating by using coating specific values for the mass of coating solids deposited per mass of coating used, mass fraction VOC, transfer efficiency, and mass fraction solids in Equations 7 and 8 of this section. Panel test results expressed in units of mass of VOC per mass of coating solids deposited must be converted to percent capture efficiency using Equation 7 of this section:

${\mathrm{CE}}_{i}=\left({P}_{m,i}\right)\left({W}_{\mathrm{sdep},i}\right)\left(100\right)/\left({{W}_{\mathrm{voc}}}_{c,i}\right)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. 7)}$

Where:
CEi = Capture efficiency for coating, i, or for the group of coatings including coating, i, for the flash-off area or bake oven for which the panel test is conducted, percent.
Pm,i = Panel test result for coating, i, or for the coating representing coating, i, in the panel test, kg of VOC per kg of coating solids deposited.
Wsdep,i = Mass of coating solids deposited per mass of coating used for coating, i, or composite mass of coating solids deposited per mass of coating used for the group of coatings, including coating, i, in the spray booth(s) preceding the flash-off area or bake oven for which the panel test is conducted, kg of solids deposited per kg of coating used, from Equation 8 of this section.
Wvocc,i = Mass fraction of VOC in coating, i, or average mass fraction of VOC for the group of coatings, including coating, i, kg VOC per kg coating, determined by EPA Method 24 (appendix A-7 to 40 CFR part 60) or the guidelines for combining analytical VOC content and formulation solvent content presented in Section 9 of “Protocol for Determining the Daily Volatile Organic Compound Emission Rate of Automobile and Light-Duty Truck Primer-Surfacer and Topcoat,” EPA-453/R-08-002 (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14).

(4) Calculate the mass of coating solids deposited per mass of coating used for each coating or the composite mass of coating solids deposited per mass of coating used for each group of coatings used during the month in the spray booth(s) preceding the flash-off area or bake oven for which the panel test is conducted using Equation 8 of this section:

${W}_{\mathrm{sdep},i}=\left({W}_{s,i}\right)\left({\mathrm{TE}}_{c,i}\right)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. 8)}$

Where:
Wsdep, i = Mass of coating solids deposited per mass of coating used for coating, i, or composite mass of coating solids deposited per mass of coating used for the group of coatings including coating, i, in the spray booth(s) preceding the flash-off area or bake oven for which the panel test is conducted, kg coating solids deposited per kg coating used.
Ws, i = Mass fraction of coating solids for coating, i, or average mass fraction of coating solids for the group of coatings including coating, i, kg coating solids per kg coating, determined by EPA Method 24 (appendix A-7 to 40 CFR part 60) or the guidelines for combining analytical VOC content and formulation solvent content presented in “Protocol for Determining the Daily Volatile Organic Compound Emission Rate of Automobile and Light-Duty Truck Primer-Surfacer and Topcoat,” EPA-453/R-08-002 (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14).
TEc, i = Transfer efficiency of coating, i, or average transfer efficiency for the group of coatings including coating, i, in the spray booth(s) for the flash-off area or bake oven for which the panel test is conducted determined according to § 63.3161(g), expressed as a decimal, for example 60 percent must be expressed as 0.60. (Transfer efficiency also may be determined by testing representative coatings. The same coating groupings may be appropriate used for both transfer efficiency testing and panel testing. In this case, all of the coatings in a panel test grouping would have the same transfer efficiency.)

(f) Alternative capture efficiency procedure. As an alternative to the procedures specified in paragraphs (c) through (e) and (g) of this section, you may determine capture efficiency using any other capture efficiency protocol and test methods that satisfy the criteria of either the DQO or LCL approach as described in appendix A to subpart KK of this part.

(g) Panel testing to determine the capture efficiency of spray booth emissions from solvent-borne coatings. You may conduct panel testing to determine the capture efficiency of spray booth emissions from solvent-borne coatings using the procedure in appendix A to this subpart.

[69 FR 22623, Apr. 26, 2004, as amended at 72 FR 20234, Apr. 24, 2007; 85 FR 41131, July 8, 2020; 86 FR 66040, Nov. 19, 2021]