# 40 CFR § 63.4741 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

§ 63.4741 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

You may use the compliant material option for any individual coating operation, for any group of coating operations in the affected source, or for all the coating operations in the affected source. You must use either the emission rate without add-on controls option or the emission rate with add-on controls option for any coating operation in the affected source for which you do not use this option. To demonstrate initial compliance using the compliant material option, the coating operation or group of coating operations must use no coating with an organic HAP content that exceeds the applicable emission limit in § 63.4690 and must use no thinner or cleaning material that contains organic HAP as determined according to this section. Any coating operation for which you use the compliant material option is not required to meet the operating limits or work practice standards required in §§ 63.4692 and 63.4693, respectively. To demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations using the compliant material option, you must meet all the requirements of this section for the coating operation or group of coating operations using this option. Use the procedures in this section on each coating, thinner, and cleaning material in the condition it is in when it is received from its manufacturer or supplier and prior to any alteration. You do not need to redetermine the mass of organic HAP in coatings, thinners, or cleaning materials that have been reclaimed onsite and reused in the coating operation(s) for which you use the compliant material option, provided these materials in their condition as received were demonstrated to comply with the compliant material option. If the mass fraction of organic HAP of a coating equals zero, determined according to paragraph (a) of this section, and you use the compliant material option, you are not required to comply with paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section for that coating.

(a) Determine the mass fraction of organic HAP for each material used. You must determine the mass fraction of organic HAP for each coating, thinner, and cleaning material used during the compliance period by using one of the options in paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section.

(1) Method 311 (appendix A to 40 CFR part 63). You may use Method 311 for determining the mass fraction of organic HAP. Use the procedures specified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section when performing a Method 311 test. If these values cannot be determined using Method 311, the owner or operator shall submit an alternative technique for determining their values for approval by the Administrator.

(i) Count each organic HAP in table 7 to subpart QQQQ of part 63 that is measured to be present at 0.1 percent by mass or more and at 1.0 percent by mass or more for other compounds. For example, if toluene (not listed in Table 7 to this subpart) is measured to be 0.5 percent of the material by mass, you do not have to count it. Express the mass fraction of each organic HAP you count as a value truncated to four places after the decimal point (e.g., 0.3791).

(ii) Calculate the total mass fraction of organic HAP in the test material by adding up the individual organic HAP mass fractions and truncating the result to three places after the decimal point (e.g., 0.763).

(2) Method 24 (appendix A-7 to 40 CFR part 60). For coatings, you may use Method 24 to determine the mass fraction of nonaqueous volatile matter and use that value as a substitute for mass fraction of organic HAP. (Note: Method 24 is not appropriate for those coatings with a water content that would result in an effective detection limit greater than the applicable emission limit.) One of the voluntary consensus standards in paragraphs (a)(2)(i) through (iv) may be used as an alternative to using Method 24.

(i) ASTM Method D2111-10 (Reapproved 2015), “Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity and Density of Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures,” (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14);

(ii) ASTM Method D2369-10 (Reapproved 2015) e, “Standard Test Method for Volatile Content of Coatings,” (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14);

(iii) ASTM Method D2697-03 (Reapproved 2014), “Standard Test Method for Volume Nonvolatile Matter in Clear or Pigmented Coatings,” (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14); and

(iv) ASTM Method D6093-97 (Reapproved 2016), “Standard Test Method for Percent Volume Nonvolatile Matter in Clear or Pigmented Coatings Using a Helium Gas Pycnometer,” (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14).

(3) Alternative method. You may use an alternative test method for determining the mass fraction of organic HAP once the Administrator has approved it. You must follow the procedure in § 63.7(f) to submit an alternative test method for approval.

(4) Information from the supplier or manufacturer of the material. You may rely on information other than that generated by the test methods specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) of this section, such as manufacturer's formulation data, if it represents each organic HAP in table 7 to this subpart that is present at 0.1 percent by mass or more and at 1.0 percent by mass or more for other compounds. For example, if toluene (not listed in table 7 to this subpart) is 0.5 percent of the material by mass, you do not have to count it. For reactive adhesives in which some of the HAP react to form solids and are not emitted to the atmosphere, you may rely on manufacturer's data that expressly states the organic HAP or volatile matter mass fraction emitted. If there is a disagreement between such information and results of a test conducted according to paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) of this section, then the test method results will take precedence unless, after consultation, you demonstrate to the satisfaction of the enforcement agency the formulation data are correct.

(5) Solvent blends. Solvent blends may be listed as single components for some materials in data provided by manufacturers or suppliers. Solvent blends may contain organic HAP which must be counted toward the total organic HAP mass fraction of the materials. When test data and manufacturer's data for solvent blends are not available, you may use the default values for the mass fraction of organic HAP in these solvent blends listed in Table 5 or Table 6 to this subpart. If you use the tables, you must use the values in Table 5 for all solvent blends that match Table 5 entries, and you may only use Table 6 if the solvent blends in the materials you use do not match any of the solvent blends in Table 5 and you only know whether the blend is aliphatic or aromatic. However, if the results of a Method 311 (40 CFR part 63, appendix A) test indicate higher values than those listed on Table 5 or Table 6 to this subpart, the Method 311 results will take precedence.

(b) Determine the volume fraction of coating solids for each coating. You must determine the volume fraction of coating solids (liters of coating solids per liter of coating) for each coating used during the compliance period by one of the methods specified in paragraph (b)(1), (2), or (3) of this section.

(1) ASTM Method D2697-03 (Reapproved 2014) or D6093-97 (Reapproved 2016). You may use ASTM Method D2697-03 (Reapproved 2014), “Standard Test Method for Volume Nonvolatile Matter in Clear or Pigmented Coatings” (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14), or D6093-97 (Reapproved 2016), “Standard Test Method for Percent Volume Nonvolatile Matter in Clear or Pigmented Coatings Using a Helium Gas Pycnometer” (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14), to determine the volume fraction of coating solids for each coating. Divide the nonvolatile volume percent obtained with the methods by 100 to calculate volume fraction of coating solids. If these values cannot be determined using these methods, the owner operator may submit an alternative technique for determining their values for approval by the Administrator.

(2) Information from the supplier or manufacturer of the material. You may obtain the volume fraction of coating solids for each coating from the supplier or manufacturer.

(3) Calculation of volume fraction of coating solids. If the volume fraction of coating solids cannot be determined using the options in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section, you must determine it using Equation 1 of this section:

${V}_{s}=1-\left(\frac{{m}_{\mathrm{volatiles}}}{{D}_{\mathrm{avg}}}\right)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. 1)}$

Where:
Vs = Volume fraction of coating solids, liters coating solids per liter coating.
mvolatiles = Total volatile matter content of the coating, including HAP, volatile organic compounds (VOC), water, and exempt compounds, determined according to Method 24 in appendix A-7 of 40 CFR part 60, grams volatile matter per liter coating.
Davg = Average density of volatile matter in the coating, grams volatile matter per liter volatile matter, determined from test results using ASTM Method D1475-13, “Standard Test Method for Density of Liquid Coatings, Inks, and Related Products,” (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14), information from the supplier or manufacturer of the material, or reference sources providing density or specific gravity data for pure materials. If there is disagreement between ASTM Method D1475-13 test results and other information sources, the test results will take precedence.

(c) Determine the density of each coating. Determine the density of each coating used during the compliance period from test results using ASTM Method D1475-13, “Standard Test Method for Density of Liquid Coatings, Inks, and Related Products,” (incorporated by reference, see § 63.14), or information from the supplier or manufacturer of the material. If there is disagreement between ASTM Method D1475-13 test results and the supplier's or manufacturer's information, the test results will take precedence.

(d) Calculate the organic HAP content of each coating. Calculate the organic HAP content, grams organic HAP per liter coating solids, of each coating used during the compliance period, using Equation 2 of this section:

${H}_{c}=\frac{\left({D}_{c}\right)\left({W}_{c}\right)}{{V}_{s}}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. 2)}$

Where:
Hc = Organic HAP content of the coating, grams organic HAP per liter coating solids.
Dc = Density of coating, grams coating per liter coating, determined according to paragraph (c) of this section.
Wc = Mass fraction of organic HAP in the coating, grams organic HAP per gram coating, determined according to paragraph (a) of this section.
Vs = Volume fraction of coating solids, liter coating solids per liter coating, determined according to paragraph (b) of this section.

(e) Compliance demonstration. The organic HAP content for each coating used during the initial compliance period, determined using Equation 2 of this section, must be less than or equal to the applicable emission limit in § 63.4690; and each thinner and cleaning material used during the initial compliance period must contain no organic HAP, determined according to paragraph (a) of this section. You must keep all records required by §§ 63.4730 and 63.4731. As part of the Notification of Compliance Status required in § 63.4710, you must identify the coating operation(s) for which you used the compliant material option and submit a statement that the coating operation(s) was (were) in compliance with the emission limitations during the initial compliance period because you used no coatings for which the organic HAP content exceeded the applicable emission limit in § 63.4690, and you used no thinners or cleaning materials that contained organic HAP, determined according to paragraph (a) of this section.

[68 FR 31760, May 28, 2003, as amended at 84 FR 7702, Mar. 4, 2019; 88 FR 14287, Mar. 8, 2023]