40 CFR § 86.004-16 - Prohibition of defeat devices.
(b) The Administrator may test or require testing on any vehicle or engine at a designated location, using driving cycles and conditions which may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal operation and use, for the purpose of investigating a potential defeat device.
(d) For vehicle and engine designs designated by the Administrator to be investigated for possible defeat devices:
(1) General. The manufacturer must show to the satisfaction of the Administrator that the vehicle or engine design does not incorporate strategies that reduce emission control effectiveness exhibited during the applicable Federal emissions test procedures when the vehicle or engine is operated under conditions which may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal operation and use, unless one of the specific exceptions set forth in the definition of “defeat device” in § 86.004-2 has been met.
(2) Information submissions required. The manufacturer will provide an explanation containing detailed information (including information which the Administrator may request to be submitted) regarding test programs, engineering evaluations, design specifications, calibrations, on-board computer algorithms, and design strategies incorporated for operation both during and outside of the applicable Federal emission test procedure.