(a) No new light-duty vehicle, light-duty truck, medium-duty passenger vehicle, or complete heavy-duty vehicle shall be equipped with a defeat device.
(b) The Administrator may test or require testing on any vehicle at a designated location, using driving cycles and conditions that may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal operation and use, for the purposes of investigating a potential defeat device.
(c) For cold temperature CO and cold temperature NMHC emission control, the Administrator will use a guideline to determine the appropriateness of the CO and NMHC emission control at ambient temperatures between 25 °F (the upper bound of the FTP test temperature range) and 68 °F (the lower bound of the FTP test temperature range). The guideline for CO emission congruity across the intermediate temperature range is the linear interpolation between the CO standard applicable at 25 °F and the CO standard applicable at 68 °F. The guideline for NMHC emission congruity across the intermediate temperature range is the linear interpolation between the NMHC FEL pass limit (e.g. 0.3499 g/mi for a 0.3 g/mi FEL) applicable at 20 °F and the Tier 2 NMOG standard to which the vehicle was certified at 68 °F, where the intermediate temperature NMHC level is rounded to the nearest hundredth for comparison to the interpolated line. For vehicles that exceed this CO emissions guideline or this NMHC emissions guideline upon intermediate temperature cold testing:
(1) If the CO emission level is greater than the 20 °F emission standard, the vehicle will automatically be considered to be equipped with a defeat device without further investigation. If the intermediate temperature NMHC emission level, rounded to the nearest hundredth, is greater than the 20 °F FEL pass limit, the vehicle will be presumed to have a defeat device unless the manufacturer provides evidence to EPA's satisfaction that the cause of the test result in question is not due to a defeat device.
(2) If the CO emission level does not exceed the 20 °F emission standard, the Administrator may investigate the vehicle design for the presence of a defeat device under paragraph (d) of this section. If the intermediate temperature NMHC emission level, rounded to the nearest hundredth, does not exceed the 20 °F FEL pass limit the Administrator may investigate the vehicle design for the presence of a defeat device under paragraph (d) of this section.
(d) The following provisions apply for vehicle designs designated by the Administrator to be investigated for possible defeat devices:
(1) The manufacturer must show to the satisfaction of the Administrator that the vehicle design does not incorporate strategies that unnecessarily reduce emission control effectiveness exhibited during the Federal Test Procedure or Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (FTP or SFTP) or the Highway Fuel Economy Test Procedure (described in subpart B of 40 CFR part 600), or the Air Conditioning Idle Test (described in § 86.165-12), when the vehicle is operated under conditions that may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal operation and use.
(2) The following information requirements apply:
(i) Upon request by the Administrator, the manufacturer must provide an explanation containing detailed information regarding test programs, engineering evaluations, design specifications, calibrations, on-board computer algorithms, and design strategies incorporated for operation both during and outside of the Federal emission test procedures.
(ii) For purposes of investigations of possible cold temperature CO or cold temperature NMHC defeat devices under this paragraph (d), the manufacturer must provide an explanation to show, to the satisfaction of the Administrator, that CO emissions and NMHC emissions are reasonably controlled in reference to the linear guideline across the intermediate temperature range.
(e) For each test group the manufacturer must submit, with the Part II certification application, an engineering evaluation demonstrating to the satisfaction of the Administrator that a discontinuity in emissions of non-methane organic gases, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, nitrous oxide, methane, and formaldehyde measured on the Federal Test Procedure (subpart B of this part) and on the Highway Fuel Economy Test Procedure (subpart B of 40 CFR part 600) does not occur in the temperature range of 20 to 86 °F. For diesel vehicles, the engineering evaluation must also include particulate emissions.