40 CFR 86.1824-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.
This section describes durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions. Eligible small-volume manufacturers or small-volume test groups may optionally meet the requirements of §§ 86.1826 and 86.1838 instead of the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (j) of this section. A separate durability demonstration is required for each evaporative/refueling family.
(a)Durability program objective. The durability program must predict an expected in-use emission deterioration rate and emission level that effectively represents a significant majority of the distribution of emission levels and deterioration in actual use over the full useful life of candidate in-use vehicles of each vehicle design which uses the durability program. This requirement applies for all SHED-based measurements except the bleed emission test. The standard for bleed emissions applies for the full useful life, but manufacturers do not need to establish deterioration factors for bleed emissions. The requirements of this section do not apply for spitback or leak standards.
(b)Required durability demonstration. Manufacturers must conduct a durability demonstration which satisfies the provisions of either paragraph (c), (d), or (e) of this section.
(c)Whole vehicle evaporative durability demonstration.
(2) Mileage accumulation must be conducted for either:
(ii) At least 75 percent of the full useful life mileage. In which case, the manufacturer must calculate a df calculated according to the procedures of paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section, except that the DF must be based upon a line projected to the full-useful life mileage using the upper 80 percent statistical confidence limit calculated from the emission data.
(3) The manufacturer must conduct at least one evaporative emission test at each of the five different mileage points selected using good engineering judgement. The required testing must include testing at 5,000 miles and at the highest mileage point run during mileage accumulation (e.g. the full useful life mileage). Additional testing may be conducted by the manufacturer using good engineering judgement. The manufacturer may select to run either the 2-day and/or 3-day evaporative test at each test point using good engineering judgement.
(d)Bench aging evaporative durability procedures. Manufacturers may use bench procedures designed, using good engineering judgement, to evaluate the emission deterioration of evaporative control systems. Manufacturers may base the bench procedure on an evaluation the following potential causes of evaporative emission deterioration:
(1) Cycling of canister loading due to diurnal and refueling events,
(2) Use of various commercially available fuels, including the Tier 2 requirement to include alcohol fuel;
(3) Vibration of components;
(4) Deterioration of hoses, etc. due to environmental conditions; and
(5) Deterioration of fuel cap due to wear.
(e)Combined whole-vehicle and bench-aging programs. Manufacturers may combine the results of whole vehicle aging and bench aging procedures using good engineering judgement.
(1) For gasoline fueled vehicles certified to meet the evaporative emission standards set forth in this subpart, any mileage accumulation method for evaporative emissions must employ gasoline fuel for the entire mileage accumulation period which contains ethanol in, at least, the highest concentration permissible in gasoline under federal law and that is commercially available in any state in the United States. Unless otherwise approved by the Administrator, the manufacturer must determine the appropriate ethanol concentration by selecting the highest legal concentration commercially available during the calendar year before the one in which the manufacturer begins its mileage accumulation. The manufacturer must also provide information acceptable to the Administrator to indicate that the mileage accumulation method is of sufficient design, duration and severity to stabilize the permeability of all non-metallic fuel and evaporative system components to the mileage accumulation fuel constituents.
(2) For flexible-fueled, dual-fueled, multi-fueled, ethanol-fueled and methanol-fueled vehicles certified to meet the evaporative emission standards set forth in § 86.1811-04(e)(1), any mileage accumulation method must employ fuel for the entire mileage accumulation period which the vehicle is designed to use and which the Administrator determines will have the greatest impact upon the permeability of evaporative and fuel system components. The manufacturer must also provide information acceptable to the Administrator to indicate that the mileage accumulation method is of sufficient design, duration and severity to stabilize the permeability of all non-metallic fuel and evaporative system components to mileage accumulation fuel constituents.
(3) A manufacturer may use other methods, based upon good engineering judgment, to meet the requirements of paragraphs (f)(1) and (2) of this section, as applicable. These methods must be approved in advance by the Administrator and meet the objectives of paragraphs (f)(1) and (2) of this section, as applicable: to provide assurance that the permeability of all non-metallic fuel and evaporative system components will not lead to evaporative emission standard exceedance under sustained exposure to commercially available alcohol-containing fuels for the useful life of the vehicle.
(g)Calculation of a deterioration factor. The manufacturer must calculate a deterioration factor which is applied to the evaporative emission results of the emission data vehicles. The deterioration factor must be based on a linear regression, or an other regression technique approved in advance by the Administrator. The DF will be calculated to be the difference between the full life mileage evaporative level minus the stabilized mileage (e.g., 4000−mile) evaporative level from the regression analysis. The full useful life regressed emission value, the stabilized mileage regressed emission value, and the DF result must be rounded to the same precision and using the same procedures as the raw emission results according to the provisions of § 86.1837-01. Calculated DF values of less than zero must be changed to zero for the purposes of this paragraph.
(i) If EPA determines based on IUVP data or other information that the durability procedure does not achieve the durability objective of paragraph (a) of this section, EPA may withdraw approval to use the durability procedure or condition approval on modifications to the durability procedure. Such withdrawal or conditional approval will apply to future applications for certification and to the portion of the manufacturer's product line (or the entire product line) that the Administrator determines to be affected. Prior to such a withdrawal the Administrator will give the manufacturer a preliminary notice at least 60 days prior to the final decision. During this period, the manufacturer may submit technical discussion, statistical analyses, additional data, or other information which is relevant to the decision. The Administrator will consider all information submitted by the deadline before reaching a final decision.
(j) Any manufacturer may request a hearing on the Administrator's withdrawal of approval in paragraph (i) of this section. The request must be in writing and must include a statement specifying the manufacturer's objections to the Administrator's determinations, and data in support of such objection. If, after review of the request and supporting data, the Administrator finds that the request raises a substantial factual issue, she/he must provide the manufacturer a hearing in accordance with § 86.1853-01 with respect to such issue.
(k)Emission component durability. [Reserved]. For guidance see 40 CFR 86.1824-01(d).