(a)Schematic drawings. Figure F90-3 is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system for analysis of hydrocarbons (HC) ( hydrocarbons plus methanol in the case of methanol-fueled motorcycles), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxides of nitrogen (NOX). Since various configurations can produce accurate results, exact conformance with the drawing is not required. Additional components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of the component systems
(b)Major component description. The exhaust gas analytical system for HC, CO and CO2, Figure F90-3, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated (235°±15 °C (113°±8 °C)) for methanol-fueled vehicles) for the determination of hydrocarbons, nondispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the determination of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and, if oxides of nitrogen are measured, a chemiluminescence analyzer (CL) for the determination of oxides of nitrogen. The analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the following requirements:
(1) The CL requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator.
(2) The carbon monoxide (CO) NDIR analyzer may require a sample conditioning column containing CaSO4, or indicating silica gel to remove water vapor and containing ascarite to remove carbon dioxide from the CO analysis stream.
(i) If CO instruments which are essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference are used, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted, see §§ 86.522 and 86.544.
(ii) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference if its response to a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 which has been bubbled through water at room temperature produces an equivalent CO response, as measured on the most sensitive CO range, which is less than 1 percent of full scale CO concentration on ranges above 300 ppm full scale or less than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale; see § 86.522.
(c)Other analyzers and equipment. Other types of analyzers and equipment may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator.