40 CFR 98.174 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
(a) If you operate and maintain a CEMS that measures CO2 emissions consistent with subpart C of this part, you must meet the monitoring and QA/QC requirements of § 98.34(c).
(b) If you determine CO2 emissions using the carbon mass balance procedure in § 98.173(b)(1), you must:
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, determine the mass of each process input and output other than fuels using the same plant instruments or procedures that are used for accounting purposes (such as weigh hoppers, belt weigh feeders, weighed purchased quantities in shipments or containers, combination of bulk density and volume measurements, etc.), record the totals for each process input and output for each calendar month, and sum the monthly mass to determine the annual mass for each process input and output. Determine the mass rate of fuels using the procedures for combustion units in § 98.34. No determination of the mass of steel output from decarburization vessels is required.
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, determine the carbon content of each process input and output annually for use in the applicable equations in § 98.173(b)(1) based on analyses provided by the supplier or by the average carbon content determined by collecting and analyzing at least three samples each year using the standard methods specified in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (b)(2)(vi) of this section as applicable.
(i) ASTM C25-06, Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Limestone, Quicklime, and Hydrated Lime (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7) for limestone, dolomite, and slag.
(ii) ASTM D5373-08 Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Laboratory Samples of Coal (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7) for coal, coke, and other carbonaceous materials.
(iii) ASTM E1915-07a, Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Metal Bearing Ores and Related Materials by Combustion Infrared-Absorption Spectrometry (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7) for iron ore, taconite pellets, and other iron-bearing materials.
(iv) ASTM E1019-08, Standard Test Methods for Determination of Carbon, Sulfur, Nitrogen, and Oxygen in Steel, Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt Alloys by Various Combustion and Fusion Techniques (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7) for iron and ferrous scrap.
(v) ASM CS-104 UNS No. G10460 - Alloy Digest April 1985 (Carbon Steel of Medium Carbon Content) (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7); ISO/TR 15349-1:1998, Unalloyed steel - Determination of low carbon content, Part 1: Infrared absorption method after combustion in an electric resistance furnace (by peak separation) (1998-10-15) First Edition (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7); or ISO/TR 15349-3:1998, Unalloyed steel-Determination of low carbon content Part 3: Infrared absorption method after combustion in an electric resistance furnace (with preheating) (1998-10-15) First Edition (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7) as applicable for steel.
(vi) For each process input that is a fuel, determine the carbon content and molecular weight (if applicable) using the applicable methods listed in § 98.34.
(3) For solid ferrous materials charged to basic oxygen process furnaces or EAFs that differ in carbon content, you may determine a weighted average carbon content based on the carbon content of each type of ferrous material and the average weight percent of each type that is used. Examples of these different ferrous materials include carbon steel, low carbon steel, stainless steel, high alloy steel, pig iron, iron scrap, and direct reduced iron.
(4) If you document that a specific process input or output contributes less than one percent of the total mass of carbon into or out of the process, you do not have to determine the monthly mass or annual carbon content of that input or output.
(5) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, you must determine the annual carbon content and monthly mass rate of any input or output that contains carbon that is not listed in the equations in § 98.173(b)(1) using the procedures in paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section.
(c) If you determine CO2 emissions using the site-specific emission factor procedure in § 98.173(b)(2), you must:
(1) Conduct an annual performance test that is based on representative performance (i.e., performance based on normal operating conditions) of the affected process.
(i) For the exhaust from basic oxygen furnaces, EAFs, decarburization vessels, and direct reduction furnaces, sample the furnace exhaust for at least three complete production cycles that start when the furnace is being charged and end after steel or iron and slag have been tapped. For EAFs that produce both carbon steel and stainless or specialty (low carbon) steel, develop an emission factor for the production of both types of steel.
(ii) For the exhaust from continuously charged EAFs, sample the exhaust for a period spanning at least three hours. For EAFs that produce both carbon steel and stainless or specialty (low carbon) steel, develop an emission factor for the production of both types of steel.
(3) For taconite indurating furnaces, non-recovery coke batteries, and sinter processes, sample for at least 3 hours.
(4) Conduct the stack test using EPA Method 3A at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-2 to measure the CO2 concentration, Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, or 2F at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 or Method 26 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-2 to determine the stack gas volumetric flow rate, and Method 4 at 40 CFR part 60, at appendix A-3 to determine the moisture content of the stack gas.
(5) Determine the mass rate of process feed or process production (as applicable) during the test using the same plant instruments or procedures that are used for accounting purposes (such as weigh hoppers, belt weigh feeders, combination of bulk density and volume measurements, etc.)
(6) If your process operates under different conditions as part of normal operations in such a manner that CO2 emissions change by more than 20 percent (e.g., routine changes in the carbon content of the sinter feed or change in grade of product), you must perform emission testing and develop separate emission factors for these different operating conditions and determine emissions based on the number of hours the process operates and the production or feed rate (as applicable) at each specific different condition.
(7) If your EAF and decarburization vessel exhaust to a common emission control device and stack, you must sample each process in the ducts before the emissions are combined, sample each process when only one process is operating, or sample the combined emissions when both processes are operating and base the site-specific emission factor on the steel production rate of the EAF.
(8) The results of a performance test must include the analysis of samples, determination of emissions, and raw data. The performance test report must contain all information and data used to derive the emission factor.
(d) For a coke pushing process, determine the metric tons of coal charged to the coke ovens and record the totals for each pushing process for each calendar month. Coal charged to coke ovens can be measured using weigh belts or a combination of measuring volume and bulk density.