42 CFR § 423.286 - Rules regarding premiums.
(a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraphs (d)(3), (d)(4), and (e) of this section, and with regard to employer group waivers, the monthly beneficiary premium for a Part D plan in a PDP region is the same for all Part D eligible individuals enrolled in the plan. The monthly beneficiary premium for a Part D plan is the base beneficiary premium, as determined in paragraph (c) of this section, adjusted as described in paragraph (d) of this section for the difference between the bid and the national average monthly bid amount, any supplemental benefits and for any late enrollment penalties.
(b) Beneficiary premium percentage. The beneficiary premium percentage for any year is a fraction, the—
(1) Numerator of which is 25.5 percent; and
(2) Denominator of which is as follows:
(i) 100 percent minus the percentage established in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section.
(ii) The percentage established in this paragraph equals:
(A) The total reinsurance payments that CMS estimates will be paid under § 423.329(c) for the coverage year; divided by—
(B) The amount estimated under paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A) of this section for the year plus total payments that CMS estimates will be paid to Part D plans that are attributable to the standardized bid amount during the year, taking into account amounts paid by both CMS and enrollees.
(c) Base beneficiary premium. The base beneficiary premium for a Part D plan for a month is equal to the product of the—
(1) Beneficiary premium percentage as specified in paragraph (b) of this section; and
(2) National average monthly bid amount (computed under § 423.279) for the month.
(d) Adjustments to base beneficiary premium. The base beneficiary premium may be adjusted to reflect any of the following scenarios, if applicable.
(1) Adjustment to reflect difference between bid and national average bid. If the amount of the standardized bid amount exceeds the adjusted national average monthly bid amount, the monthly base beneficiary premium is increased by the amount of the excess. If the amount of the adjusted national average monthly bid amount exceeds the standardized bid amount, the monthly base beneficiary premium is decreased by the amount of the excess. If the amount of the adjusted national average monthly bid amount exceeds the standardized bid amount by an amount greater than the base beneficiary premium and results in a negative premium, then the beneficiary premium is zero, and the excess amount is applied to supplemental Part D benefits as described in § 423.272(e).
(2) Increase for supplemental prescription drug benefits. The portion of the Part D plan approved bid that is attributable to supplemental prescription drug benefits increases the beneficiary premium. This supplemental portion of the bid may be adjusted to reflect the average risk of enrollees in the plan as determined based on negotiations between CMS and the Part D sponsor offering the plan.
(3) Increase for late enrollment penalty. The base beneficiary premium for a Part D enrollee subject to the late enrollment penalty is increased by the amount of any late enrollment penalty.
(i) Late enrollment penalty amount. The penalty amount for a Part D eligible individual for a continuous period of eligibility (as provided in § 423.46(a)) is the greater of—
(A) An amount that CMS determines is actuarially sound for each uncovered month in the same continuous period of eligibility; or
(B) 1 percent of the base beneficiary premium (computed under paragraph (c) of this section) for each uncovered month in the period.
(ii) Special rule for 2006 and 2007. In 2006 and 2007 the penalty amount discussed in paragraph (d)(3) of this chapter equals the amount referenced in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B) of this section unless another amount is specified in a separate issuance based on available analysis or other information as determined by the Secretary.
(4) Increase for income-related monthly adjustment amount (Part D—IRMAA). Beginning January 1, 2011, Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in a Medicare Part D plan must pay an income-related monthly adjustment amount in addition to the Part D premium as determined under paragraph (c) of this section and adjusted under paragraph (d) of this section, if the enrollee's modified adjusted gross income exceeds the threshold amounts specified in 20 CFR 418.2115.
(i) Social Security Administration determination.
(A) SSA determines which Part D enrollees are subject to the Part D—IRMAA and the amount each enrollee will have to pay.
(B) If an individual disagrees with SSA's determination that such individual is subject to the Part D—IRMAA, or about the amount the individual must pay, an individual may file an appeal or request a new initial determination consistent with 20 CFR part 418.
(ii) Calculating the income-related monthly adjustment amount. The income-related monthly adjustment is equal to the product of the standard base beneficiary premium, as determined under paragraph (c) of this section, and the ratio of the applicable premium percentage specified in 20 CFR 418.2120, reduced by 25.5 percent; divided by 25.5 percent (that is, premium percentage−25.5 percent)/25.5 percent).
(e) Decrease in monthly beneficiary premium for low-income assistance. The monthly beneficiary premium may be eliminated or decreased in the case of a subsidy-eligible individual under § 423.780.
(f) Special rules for fallback prescription drug plans. The monthly beneficiary premium charged under a fallback prescription drug plan is calculated under § 423.867(a) and not under this section, except that enrollees in fallback prescription drug plans are subject to late enrollment penalties under paragraph (d)(3) of this section and fallback prescription drug plan premiums are reduced or eliminated in the case of a subsidy-eligible individual, as described in paragraph (e) of this section.