42 CFR § 433.316 - When discovery of overpayment occurs and its significance.
(a) General rule. The date on which an overpayment is discovered is the beginning date of the 1-year period allowed for a State to recover or seek to recover an overpayment before a refund of the Federal share of an overpayment must be made to CMS.
(b) Requirements for notification. Unless a State official or fiscal agent of the State chooses to initiate a formal recoupment action against a provider without first giving written notification of its intent, a State Medicaid agency official or other State official must notify the provider in writing of any overpayment it discovers in accordance with State agency policies and procedures and must take reasonable actions to attempt to recover the overpayment in accordance with State law and procedures.
(2) The date on which a provider initially acknowledges a specific overpaid amount in writing to the medicaid agency; or
(3) The date on which any State official or fiscal agent of the State initiates a formal action to recoup a specific overpaid amount from a provider without having first notified the provider in writing.
(d) Overpayments resulting from fraud.
(2) When the State is unable to recover a debt which represents an overpayment (or any portion thereof) resulting from fraud within 1 year of discovery because no final determination of the amount of the overpayment has been made under an administrative or judicial process (as applicable), including as a result of a judgment being under appeal, no adjustment shall be made in the Federal payment to such State on account of such overpayment (or any portion thereof) until 30 days after the date on which a final judgment (including, if applicable, a final determination on an appeal) is made.
(3) The Medicaid agency may treat an overpayment made to a Medicaid provider as resulting from fraud under subsection (d) of this section only if it has referred a provider's case to the Medicaid fraud control unit, or appropriate law enforcement agency in States with no certified Medicaid fraud control unit, as required by § 455.15, § 455.21, or § 455.23 of this chapter, and the Medicaid fraud control unit or appropriate law enforcement agency has provided the Medicaid agency with written notification of acceptance of the case; or if the Medicaid fraud control unit or appropriate law enforcement agency has filed a civil or criminal action against a provider and has notified the State Medicaid agency.
(e) Overpayments identified through Federal reviews. If a Federal review at any time indicates that a State has failed to identify an overpayment or a State has identified an overpayment but has failed to either send written notice of the overpayment to the provider that specified a dollar amount subject to recovery or initiate a formal recoupment from the provider without having first notified the provider in writing, CMS will consider the overpayment as discovered on the date that the Federal official first notifies the State in writing of the overpayment and specifies a dollar amount subject to recovery.
(f) Effect of changes in overpayment amount. Any adjustment in the amount of an overpayment during the 1-year period following discovery (made in accordance with the approved State plan, Federal law and regulations governing Medicaid, and the appeals resolution process specified in State administrative policies and procedures) has the following effect on the 1-year recovery period:
(1) A downward adjustment in the amount of an overpayment subject to recovery that occurs after discovery does not change the original 1-year recovery period for the outstanding balance.
(2) An upward adjustment in the amount of an overpayment subject to recovery that occurs during the 1-year period following discovery does not change the 1-year recovery period for the original overpayment amount. A new 1-year period begins for the incremental amount only, beginning with the date of the State's written notification to the provider regarding the upward adjustment.
(g) Effect of partial collection by State. A partial collection of an overpayment amount by the State from a provider during the 1-year period following discovery does not change the 1-year recovery period for the balance of the original overpayment amount due to CMS.
(h) Effect of administrative or judicial appeals. Any appeal rights extended to a provider do not extend the date of discovery.