42 CFR § 441.715 - Needs-based criteria and evaluation.
(a) Needs-based criteria. The State must establish needs-based criteria for determining an individual's eligibility under the State plan for the HCBS benefit, and may establish needs-based criteria for each specific service. Needs-based criteria are factors used to determine an individual's requirements for support, and may include risk factors. The criteria are not characteristics that describe the individual or the individual's condition. A diagnosis is not a sufficient factor on which to base a determination of need. A criterion can be considered needs-based if it is a factor that can only be ascertained for a given person through an individualized evaluation of need.
(b) More stringent institutional and waiver needs-based criteria. The State plan HCBS benefit is available only if the State has in effect needs-based criteria (as defined in paragraph (a) of this section), for receipt of services in nursing facilities as defined in section 1919(a) of the Act, intermediate care facilities for individuals with intellectual disabilities as defined in § 440.150 of this chapter, and hospitals as defined in § 440.10 of this chapter for which the State has established long-term level of care (LOC) criteria, or waivers offering HCBS, and these needs-based criteria are more stringent than the needs-based criteria for the State plan HCBS benefit. If the State defines needs-based criteria for individual State plan home and community-based services, it may not have the effect of limiting who can benefit from the State plan HCBS in an unreasonable way, as determined by the Secretary.
(1) These more stringent criteria must meet the following requirements:
(i) Be included in the LOC determination process for each institutional service and waiver.
(ii) Be submitted for inspection by CMS with the State plan amendment that establishes the State Plan HCBS benefit.
(iii) Be in effect on or before the effective date of the State plan HCBS benefit.
(2) In the event that the State modifies institutional LOC criteria to meet the requirements under paragraph (b) or (c)(6) of this section that such criteria be more stringent than the State plan HCBS needs-based eligibility criteria, States may continue to receive FFP for individuals receiving institutional services or waiver HCBS under the LOC criteria previously in effect.
(c) Adjustment authority. The State may modify the needs-based criteria established under paragraph (a) of this section, without prior approval from the Secretary, if the number of individuals enrolled in the State plan HCBS benefit exceeds the projected number submitted annually to CMS. The Secretary may approve a retroactive effective date for the State plan amendment modifying the criteria, as early as the day following the notification period required under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, if all of the following conditions are met:
(1) The State provides at least 60 days notice of the proposed modification to the Secretary, the public, and each individual enrolled in the State plan HCBS benefit.
(2) The State notice to the Secretary is submitted as an amendment to the State plan.
(3) The adjusted needs-based eligibility criteria for the State plan HCBS benefit are less stringent than needs-based institutional and waiver LOC criteria in effect after the adjustment.
(4) Individuals who were found eligible for the State plan HCBS benefit before modification of the needs-based criteria under this adjustment authority must remain eligible for the HCBS benefit until such time as:
(i) The individual no longer meets the needs-based criteria used for the initial determination of eligibility; or
(ii) The individual is no longer eligible for or enrolled in Medicaid or the HCBS benefit.
(5) Any changes in service due to the modification of needs-based criteria under this adjustment authority are treated as actions as defined in § 431.201 of this chapter and are subject to the requirements of part 431, subpart E of this chapter.
(6) In the event that the State also needs to modify institutional level of care criteria to meet the requirements under paragraph (b) of this section that such criteria be more stringent than the State plan HCBS needs-based eligibility criteria, the State may adjust the modified institutional LOC criteria under this adjustment authority. The adjusted institutional LOC criteria must be at least as stringent as those in effect before they were modified to meet the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section.
(d) Independent evaluation and determination of eligibility. Eligibility for the State plan HCBS benefit must be determined through an independent evaluation of each individual according to the requirements of this subpart. The independent evaluation complies with the following requirements:
(1) Is performed by an agent that is independent and qualified as defined in § 441.730.
(2) Applies the needs-based eligibility criteria that the State has established under paragraph (a) of this section, and the general eligibility requirements under §§ 435.219 and 436.219 of this chapter.
(4) Assesses the individual's support needs.
(5) Uses only current and accurate information from existing records, and obtains any additional information necessary to draw valid conclusions about the individual's support needs.
(6) Evaluations finding that an individual is not eligible for the State plan HCBS benefit are treated as actions defined in § 431.201 of this chapter and are subject to the requirements of part 431 subpart E of this chapter.
(e) Periodic redetermination. Independent reevaluations of each individual receiving the State plan HCBS benefit must be performed at least every 12 months, to determine whether the individual continues to meet eligibility requirements. Redeterminations must meet the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section.