42 CFR § 447.502 - Definitions.

§ 447.502 Definitions.
Link to an amendment published at 85 FR 87101, Dec. 31, 2020.

For the purpose of this subpart, the following definitions apply:

Actual acquisition cost (AAC) means the agency's determination of the pharmacy providers' actual prices paid to acquire drug products marketed or sold by specific manufacturers.

Authorized generic drug means any drug sold, licensed, or marketed under a new drug application (NDA) approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under section 505(c) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) that is marketed, sold or distributed under a different labeler code, product code, trade name, trademark, or packaging (other than repackaging the listed drug for use in institutions) than the brand name drug.

Bona fide service fee means a fee paid by a manufacturer to an entity that represents fair market value for a bona fide, itemized service actually performed on behalf of the manufacturer that the manufacturer would otherwise perform (or contract for) in the absence of the service arrangement, and that is not passed on in whole or in part to a client or customer of an entity, whether or not the entity takes title to the drug. The fee includes, but is not limited to, distribution service fees, inventory management fees, product stocking allowances, and fees associated with administrative service agreements and patient care programs (such as medication compliance programs and patient education programs).

Brand name drug means a single source or innovator multiple source drug.

Bundled sale means any arrangement regardless of physical packaging under which the rebate, discount, or other price concession is conditioned upon the purchase of the same drug, drugs of different types (that is, at the nine-digit national drug code (NDC) level) or another product or some other performance requirement (for example, the achievement of market share, inclusion or tier placement on a formulary), or where the resulting discounts or other price concessions are greater than those which would have been available had the bundled drugs been purchased separately or outside the bundled arrangement.

(1) The discounts in a bundled sale, including those discounts resulting from a contingent arrangement, are allocated proportionally to the total dollar value of the units of all drugs or products sold under the bundled arrangement.

(2) For bundled sales where multiple drugs are discounted, the aggregate value of all the discounts in the bundled arrangement must be proportionally allocated across all the drugs or products in the bundle.

(3) Value-based purchasing (VBP) arrangements may qualify as a bundled sale.

Clotting factor means a hemophilia clotting factor for which a separate furnishing payment is made under section 1842(o)(5) of the Act and which is included on a list of such factors specified and updated regularly by CMS and posted on the CMS Web site.

CMS-authorized supplemental rebate agreement means an agreement that is approved through a state plan amendment (SPA) by CMS, which allows a state to enter into single and/or multi-state supplemental drug rebate arrangements that generate rebates that are at least as large as the rebates set forth in the Secretary's national rebate agreement with drug manufacturers. Revenue from these rebates must be paid directly to the state and be used by the state to offset a state's drug expenditures resulting in shared savings with the Federal Government.

Consumer Price Index - Urban (CPI-U) means the index of consumer prices developed and updated by the U.S. Department of Labor. It is the CPI for all urban consumers (U.S. average) for the month before the beginning of the calendar quarter for which the rebate is paid.

Covered outpatient drug means, of those drugs which are treated as a prescribed drug for the purposes of section 1905(a)(12) of the Act, a drug which may be dispensed only upon a prescription (except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this definition).

(1) A drug can only be considered a covered outpatient drug if it:

(i) Is approved for safety and effectiveness as a prescription drug by the FDA under section 505 or 507 of the FFDCA or under section 505(j) of the FFDCA;

(ii) Was commercially used or sold in the United States before the enactment of the Drug Amendments of 1962 or which is identical, similar, or related (within the meaning described in FDA regulations at 21 CFR 310.6(b)(1)) to such a drug, and which has not been the subject of a final determination by the Secretary that it is a “new drug” (within the meaning of section 201(p) of the FFDCA) or an action brought by the Secretary under sections 301, 302(a), or 304(a) of FFDCA to enforce section 502(f) or 505(a) of the FFDCA;

(iii) Is described in section 107(c)(3) of the Drug Amendments of 1962 and for which the Secretary has determined there is a compelling justification for its medical need or is identical, similar, or related (within the meaning described in FDA regulations at 21 CFR 310.6(b)(1)) to such a drug or for which the Secretary has not issued a notice for an opportunity for a hearing under section 505(e) of the FFDCA on a proposed order of the Secretary to withdraw approval of an application for such drug under section 505(e) of the FFDCA because the Secretary has determined that the drug is less than effective for some or all conditions of use prescribed, recommended, or suggested in its labeling;

(iv) Is a biological product other than a vaccine that may only be dispensed upon a prescription and is licensed under section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) and is produced at an establishment licensed under section 351 of the PHSA to produce such product; or

(v) Is insulin certified under section 506 of the FFDCA.

(2) A covered outpatient drug does not include any drug, biological product, or insulin provided as part of or incident to and in the same setting as any of the following services (and for which payment may be made as part of that service instead of as a direct reimbursement for the drug):

(i) Inpatient Services;

(ii) Hospice Services;

(iii) Dental Services, except that drugs for which the State plan authorizes direct reimbursement to the dispensing dentist are covered outpatient drugs;

(iv) Physician services;

(v) Outpatient hospital services;

(vi) Nursing facility and services provided by an intermediate care facility for individuals with intellectual disabilities;

(vii) Other laboratory and x-ray services; or

(viii) Renal dialysis.

(3) A covered outpatient drug does not include:

(i) Any drug product, prescription or over-the-counter (OTC), for which an NDC number is not required by the FDA;

(ii) Any drug product for which a manufacturer has not submitted to CMS evidence to demonstrate that the drug product satisfies the criteria in paragraph (1) of this definition;

(iii) Any drug product or biological used for a medical indication which is not a medically accepted indication; or

(iv) Over-the-counter products that are not drugs.

Customary prompt pay discount means any discount off of the purchase price of a drug routinely offered by the manufacturer to a wholesaler for prompt payment of purchased drugs within a specified timeframe and consistent with customary business practices for payment.

Innovator multiple source drug means a multiple source drug, including an authorized generic drug, that is marketed under a new drug application (NDA) approved by FDA, unless the Secretary determines that a narrow exception applies (as described in this section). It also includes a drug product marketed by any cross-licensed producers, labelers, or distributors operating under the NDA and a covered outpatient drug approved under a biologics license application (BLA), product license application (PLA), establishment license application (ELA) or antibiotic drug application (ADA).

Lagged price concession means any discount or rebate that is realized after the sale of the drug, but does not include customary prompt pay discounts.

Manufacturer means any entity that holds the NDC for a covered outpatient drug or biological product and meets the following criteria:

(1) Is engaged in the production, preparation, propagation, compounding, conversion, or processing of covered outpatient drug products, either directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of natural origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis; or

(2) Is engaged in the packaging, repackaging, labeling, relabeling, or distribution of covered outpatient drug products and is not a wholesale distributor of drugs or a retail pharmacy licensed under State law.

(3) For authorized generic products, the term “manufacturer” will also include the original holder of the NDA.

(4) For drugs subject to private labeling arrangements, the term “manufacturer” will also include the entity under whose own label or trade name the product will be distributed.

Multiple source drug means, for a rebate period, a covered outpatient drug, including a drug product approved for marketing as a non-prescription drug that is regarded as a covered outpatient drug under section 1927(k)(4) of the Act, for which there is at least 1 other drug product which meets all of the following criteria:

(1) Is rated as therapeutically equivalent (under the FDA's most recent publication of “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations” which is available at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/ob/).

(2) Except as provided at section 1927(k)(7)(B) of the Act, is pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, as defined at section 1927(k)(7)(C) of the Act and as determined by FDA.

(3) Is sold or marketed in the United States during the period.

National drug code (NDC) means the numerical code maintained by the FDA that includes the labeler code, product code, and package code. For purposes of this subpart, the NDC is considered to be an 11-digit code, unless otherwise specified in this subpart as being without regard to package size (that is, the 9-digit numerical code).

National rebate agreement means the rebate agreement developed by CMS and entered into by CMS on behalf of the Secretary or his or her designee and a manufacturer to implement section 1927 of the Act.

Nominal price means a price that is less than 10 percent of the average manufacturer price (AMP) in the same quarter for which the AMP is computed.

Noninnovator multiple source drug means:

(1) A multiple source drug that is not an innovator multiple source drug or a single source drug;

(2) A multiple source drug that is marketed under an ANDA or an abbreviated antibiotic drug application;

(3) A covered outpatient drug that entered the market before 1962 that was not originally marketed under an NDA;

(4) Any drug that has not gone through an FDA approval process, but otherwise meets the definition of covered outpatient drug; or

(5) If any of the drug products listed in this definition of a noninnovator multiple source drug subsequently receives an NDA or ANDA approval from FDA, the product's drug category changes to correlate with the new product application type.

Oral solid dosage form means capsules, tablets, or similar drugs products intended for oral use as defined in accordance with FDA regulation at 21 CFR 206.3 that defines solid oral dosage form.

Over-the-counter (OTC) drug means a drug that is appropriate for use without the supervision of a health care professional such as a physician, and which can be purchased by a consumer without a prescription.

Pediatric indication means a specifically stated indication for use by the pediatric age group meaning from birth through 16 years of age, or a subset of this group as specified in the “Indication and Usage” section of the FDA approved labeling, or in an explanation elsewhere in the labeling that makes it clear that the drug is for use only in a pediatric age group, or a subset of this group.

Professional dispensing fee means the professional fee which:

(1) Is incurred at the point of sale or service and pays for costs in excess of the ingredient cost of a covered outpatient drug each time a covered outpatient drug is dispensed;

(2) Includes only pharmacy costs associated with ensuring that possession of the appropriate covered outpatient drug is transferred to a Medicaid beneficiary. Pharmacy costs include, but are not limited to, reasonable costs associated with a pharmacist's time in checking the computer for information about an individual's coverage, performing drug utilization review and preferred drug list review activities, measurement or mixing of the covered outpatient drug, filling the container, beneficiary counseling, physically providing the completed prescription to the Medicaid beneficiary, delivery, special packaging, and overhead associated with maintaining the facility and equipment necessary to operate the pharmacy; and

(3) Does not include administrative costs incurred by the State in the operation of the covered outpatient drug benefit including systems costs for interfacing with pharmacies.

Rebate period means a calendar quarter.

Single source drug means a covered outpatient drug, including a drug product approved for marketing as a non-prescription drug that is regarded as a covered outpatient drug under section 1927(k)(4) of the Act, which is produced or distributed under a new drug application approved by the FDA, including a drug product marketed by any cross-licensed producers or distributors operating under the new drug application unless the Secretary determines that a narrow exception applies (as described in this section), and includes a covered outpatient drug that is a biological product licensed, produced, or distributed under a biologics license application approved by the FDA.

States means the 50 States and the District of Columbia and, beginning April 1, 2022, also includes the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and American Samoa.

United States means the 50 States and the District of Columbia and, beginning April 1, 2022, also includes the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and American Samoa.

Value-based purchasing (VBP) arrangement means an arrangement or agreement intended to align pricing and/or payments to an observed or expected therapeutic or clinical value in a select population and includes, but is not limited to:

(1) Evidence-based measures, which substantially link the cost of a covered outpatient drug to existing evidence of effectiveness and potential value for specific uses of that product; and/or

(2) Outcomes-based measures, which substantially link payment for the covered outpatient drug to that of the drug's actual performance in patient or a population, or a reduction in other medical expenses.

Wholesaler means a drug wholesaler that is engaged in wholesale distribution of prescription drugs to retail community pharmacies, including but not limited to repackers, distributors, own-label distributors, private-label distributors, jobbers, brokers, warehouses (including distributor's warehouses, chain drug warehouses, and wholesale drug warehouses), independent wholesale drug traders, and retail community pharmacies that conduct wholesale distributions.

[81 FR 5347, Feb. 1, 2016, as amended at 81 FR 80005, Nov. 15, 2016; 84 FR 64786, Nov. 25, 2019; 85 FR 87101, Dec. 31, 2020]