42 CFR § 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.
There must be an effective governing body that is legally responsible for the conduct of the hospital. If a hospital does not have an organized governing body, the persons legally responsible for the conduct of the hospital must carry out the functions specified in this part that pertain to the governing body.
(a) Standard: Medical staff. The governing body must:
(1) Determine, in accordance with State law, which categories of practitioners are eligible candidates for appointment to the medical staff;
(2) Appoint members of the medical staff after considering the recommendations of the existing members of the medical staff;
(3) Assure that the medical staff has bylaws;
(4) Approve medical staff bylaws and other medical staff rules and regulations;
(5) Ensure that the medical staff is accountable to the governing body for the quality of care provided to patients;
(6) Ensure the criteria for selection are individual character, competence, training, experience, and judgment; and
(7) Ensure that under no circumstances is the accordance of staff membership or professional privileges in the hospital dependent solely upon certification, fellowship, or membership in a specialty body or society.
(8) Ensure that, when telemedicine services are furnished to the hospital's patients through an agreement with a distant-site hospital, the agreement is written and that it specifies that it is the responsibility of the governing body of the distant-site hospital to meet the requirements in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(7) of this section with regard to the distant-site hospital's physicians and practitioners providing telemedicine services. The governing body of the hospital whose patients are receiving the telemedicine services may, in accordance with § 482.22(a)(3) of this part, grant privileges based on its medical staff recommendations that rely on information provided by the distant-site hospital.
(9) Ensure that when telemedicine services are furnished to the hospital's patients through an agreement with a distant-site telemedicine entity, the written agreement specifies that the distant-site telemedicine entity is a contractor of services to the hospital and as such, in accordance with § 482.12(e), furnishes the contracted services in a manner that permits the hospital to comply with all applicable conditions of participation for the contracted services, including, but not limited to, the requirements in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(7) of this section with regard to the distant-site telemedicine entity's physicians and practitioners providing telemedicine services. The governing body of the hospital whose patients are receiving the telemedicine services may, in accordance with § 482.22(a)(4) of this part, grant privileges to physicians and practitioners employed by the distant-site telemedicine entity based on such hospital's medical staff recommendations; such staff recommendations may rely on information provided by the distant-site telemedicine entity.
(10) Consult directly with the individual assigned the responsibility for the organization and conduct of the hospital's medical staff, or his or her designee. At a minimum, this direct consultation must occur periodically throughout the fiscal or calendar year and include discussion of matters related to the quality of medical care provided to patients of the hospital. For a multi-hospital system using a single governing body, the single multi-hospital system governing body must consult directly with the individual responsible for the organized medical staff (or his or her designee) of each hospital within its system in addition to the other requirements of this paragraph (a).
(b) Standard: Chief executive officer. The governing body must appoint a chief executive officer who is responsible for managing the hospital.
(1) Every Medicare patient is under the care of:
(i) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy (This provision is not to be construed to limit the authority of a doctor of medicine or osteopathy to delegate tasks to other qualified health care personnel to the extent recognized under State law or a State's regulatory mechanism.);
(ii) A doctor of dental surgery or dental medicine who is legally authorized to practice dentistry by the State and who is acting within the scope of his or her license;
(iii) A doctor of podiatric medicine, but only with respect to functions which he or she is legally authorized by the State to perform;
(iv) A doctor of optometry who is legally authorized to practice optometry by the State in which he or she practices;
(v) A chiropractor who is licensed by the State or legally authorized to perform the services of a chiropractor, but only with respect to treatment by means of manual manipulation of the spine to correct a subluxation demonstrated by x-ray to exist; and
(vi) A clinical psychologist as defined in § 410.71 of this chapter, but only with respect to clinical psychologist services as defined in § 410.71 of this chapter and only to the extent permitted by State law.
(2) Patients are admitted to the hospital only on the recommendation of a licensed practitioner permitted by the State to admit patients to a hospital. If a Medicare patient is admitted by a practitioner not specified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, that patient is under the care of a doctor of medicine or osteopathy.
(3) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy is on duty or on call at all times.
(4) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy is responsible for the care of each Medicare patient with respect to any medical or psychiatric problem that -
(i) is present on admission or develops during hospitalization; and
(ii) Is not specifically within the scope of practice of a doctor of dental surgery, dental medicine, podiatric medicine, or optometry; a chiropractor; or clinical psychologist, as that scope is -
(A) Defined by the medical staff;
(B) Permitted by State law; and
(C) Limited, under paragraph (c)(1)(v) of this section, with respect to chiropractors.
(d) Standard: Institutional plan and budget. The institution must have an overall institutional plan that meets the following conditions:
(1) The plan must include an annual operating budget that is prepared according to generally accepted accounting principles.
(2) The budget must include all anticipated income and expenses. This provision does not require that the budget identify item by item the components of each anticipated income or expense.
(4) The plan must include and identify in detail the objective of, and the anticipated sources of financing for, each anticipated capital expenditure in excess of $600,000 (or a lesser amount that is established, in accordance with section 1122(g)(1) of the Act, by the State in which the hospital is located) that relates to any of the following:
(i) Acquisition of land;
(ii) Improvement of land, buildings, and equipment; or
(iii) The replacement, modernization, and expansion of buildings and equipment.
(5) The plan must be submitted for review to the planning agency designated in accordance with section 1122(b) of the Act, or if an agency is not designated, to the appropriate health planning agency in the State. (See part 100 of this title.) A capital expenditure is not subject to section 1122 review if 75 percent of the health care facility's patients who are expected to use the service for which the capital expenditure is made are individuals enrolled in a health maintenance organization (HMO) or competitive medical plan (CMP) that meets the requirements of section 1876(b) of the Act, and if the Department determines that the capital expenditure is for services and facilities that are needed by the HMO or CMP in order to operate efficiently and economically and that are not otherwise readily accessible to the HMO or CMP because -
(i) The facilities do not provide common services at the same site;
(ii) The facilities are not available under a contract of reasonable duration;
(iii) Full and equal medical staff privileges in the facilities are not available;
(iv) Arrangements with these facilities are not administratively feasible; or
(6) The plan must be reviewed and updated annually.
(7) The plan must be prepared -
(i) Under the direction of the governing body; and
(ii) By a committee consisting of representatives of the governing body, the administrative staff, and the medical staff of the institution.
(e) Standard: Contracted services. The governing body must be responsible for services furnished in the hospital whether or not they are furnished under contracts. The governing body must ensure that a contractor of services (including one for shared services and joint ventures) furnishes services that permit the hospital to comply with all applicable conditions of participation and standards for the contracted services.
(1) The governing body must ensure that the services performed under a contract are provided in a safe and effective manner.
(f) Standard: Emergency services.
(2) If emergency services are not provided at the hospital, the governing body must assure that the medical staff has written policies and procedures for appraisal of emergencies, initial treatment, and referral when appropriate.
(3) If emergency services are provided at the hospital but are not provided at one or more off-campus departments of the hospital, the governing body of the hospital must assure that the medical staff has written policies and procedures in effect with respect to the off-campus department(s) for appraisal of emergencies and referral when appropriate.