42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.
(a) What are the requirements for promoting the well-being of sanctuary chimpanzees? The goal of chimpanzee housing and management in the sanctuary is to promote the chimpanzees' well-being.
(b) What are the provisions for daily chimpanzee husbandry and care? Adequate and proper care for chimpanzees in the sanctuary must be provided with respect to physical environment, housing and husbandry, behavioral management, and population management and control. Specific requirements include the following:
(1) Chimpanzees must have access to food, water, and bedding at all times, unless medical or behavioral conditions dictate otherwise. Husbandry procedures shall represent current policies and practices and conform to standards set by a nationally recognized accrediting association in accordance with the Guide (incorporated by reference, see paragraph (a) of § 9.4).
(2) Indoor primary enclosures must be cleaned as often as required to maintain a clean and healthy environment, with a minimum of once daily. Outdoor enclosures must be monitored daily and cleaned on a routine basis. Outdoor ranging areas will not require a routine cleaning schedule but must be monitored for excessive accumulation of waste or other unhealthy conditions. Housing areas shall provide sufficient space for chimpanzees to perform species-typical behavior and expression. Examples of such activities include but are not limited to natural movements, climbing, swinging, resting, running, group interactions, sleeping, etc. Feeding and watering implements must be sanitized at intervals required to maintain them in a sanitary condition, in accordance with the Guide (incorporated by reference, see paragraph (a) of § 9.4).
(3) The federally supported chimpanzee sanctuary must employ a behavioral scientist knowledgeable in primate behavior and socialization requirements. This individual shall provide primary leadership in developing, implementing, and monitoring the chimpanzee behavioral guidelines for the sanctuary. Enrichment techniques used shall be currently accepted practices. The sanctuary must provide for the expertise to plan, administer, and evaluate the effectiveness of the well-being program.
(4) Many chimpanzees can be trained through positive reinforcement to cooperate with a variety of veterinary and chimpanzee care procedures. Efforts must be made to develop or maintain this capability for chimpanzees housed in the sanctuary to the extent possible. Trainers must use currently acceptable practices that do not include physical punishment.
(c) What are the requirements for an adequate veterinary care and animal health program? The sanctuary staff must provide sufficient resources of personnel, equipment, supplies, and facilities to enable the provision of adequate veterinary care as set forth in the Guide (incorporated by reference, see paragraph (b) of § 9.4). For additional guidance see the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine document, “The Provision of Adequate Veterinary Care,” available on the Internet at http://www.aclam.org.
(1) If the sanctuary houses chimpanzees with infectious diseases, it must have a veterinarian knowledgeable in the infectious diseases and care of chimpanzees. The Facility Veterinarian is responsible for establishing and implementing a health monitoring system specifically designed to meet the health requirements of chimpanzees in the sanctuary. Routine observation and the prevention of disease, metabolic conditions, abnormal behavior and injury must be a priority focus of the Facility Veterinarian and staff.
(2) Newly received chimpanzees must be quarantined for a period for physiological, psychological, and nutritional stabilization before their introduction to the rest of the group. The stabilization period must be lengthened appropriately if the chimpanzee has a significant medical problem or if abnormal medical findings are detected during the quarantine period. If the chimpanzee has not been given a complete physical examination within six months, an examination must be conducted during the stabilization period.
(3) The sanctuary must implement appropriate methods for disease surveillance and diagnosis of diseases, which may include the following:
(4) Tuberculin (TB) tests must be negative for two (2) consecutive tests before the chimpanzee is released from quarantine. Any chimpanzee that is suspected of harboring the TB organism, or that is diagnosed with TB will be isolated and treated until determined by the Facility Veterinarian to be of no health risk to other chimpanzees or humans. The Facility Veterinarian may recommend euthanasia in those cases that do not respond to therapy and in which the chimpanzee consequently experiences undue pain and suffering that cannot be alleviated. The procedures noted under § 9.6 (d) must be observed if euthanasia is necessary.
(5) Fecal samples must be checked for parasites and parasitic ova.
(6) A complete blood count and serum chemical panel must be obtained.
(7) Additional serum for banking and/or testing shall be obtained as appropriate by the Facility Veterinarian and is considered beneficial for chimpanzee health.
(8) If the donating facility did not test for the appropriate viruses, the sanctuary must perform a viral panel and serology for the various chronic hepatitis viruses and HIV.
(9) Additional tests or procedures that are deemed beneficial to the chimpanzees' health may be required by the Facility Veterinarian.
(10) Chimpanzees are susceptible to many of the vaccine preventable diseases of human childhood. Appropriate vaccines must be considered and administered if deemed necessary, at the discretion of the Facility Veterinarian, to protect the chimpanzees in the sanctuary. Methods of disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapy must comply with those currently accepted in veterinary medical practice. Arrangements with diagnostic laboratories must be established before chimpanzees arrive at the sanctuary.
(11) The sanctuary must minimize the use of physical and chemical restraint. Chimpanzees in the sanctuary shall be trained to permit certain procedures with minimal or no restraint. Such procedures may include injections, dosing or other treatments, and cage-side health observations. However, chemical sedation sometimes may be appropriate for certain necessary medical interventions or for the safety of the chimpanzee and caregivers. If physical restraint measures are necessary, due consideration must be given to the temporary or permanent effects upon the chimpanzee and human and animal safety concerns.
(12) Methods used to relieve pain must be documented in the chimpanzee medical or surgical records. These records will be available for review by USDA and NIH representatives. The Facility Veterinarian must ensure that pain management is current and in accordance with acceptable veterinary medical practices.
(13) Chimpanzees must be cared for by qualified personnel on a daily basis, including weekends and holidays, to safeguard their well-being. Emergency veterinary care must also be available during these times. Notification procedures must be documented in the form of operating procedures.
(d) Under what circumstances is euthanasia permitted? As stated in section 481C(d)(2)(I) of the Public Health Service Act, as added by section 2 of the CHIMP Act, none of the chimpanzees may be subjected to euthanasia except when it is in the best interest of the chimpanzee involved as determined by the SCCC and the Facility Veterinarian. Therefore, euthanasia for medical or humane reasons is permitted. Euthanasia may be permitted for reasons of health or quality of life of the individual chimpanzee, including for disease, in connection with trauma, complications of aging, or for other humane reasons. The sanctuary must establish a policy on euthanasia that will provide conditions that must be met before euthanasia is permitted and guidance for performing euthanasia.
(1) Methods of euthanasia will be consistent with the most recent report of the American Veterinary Medical Association Panel on Euthanasia (2002), unless more reliable data becomes available. When euthanasia is performed, the veterinarian will determine the appropriate agent, and it will be administered only by properly trained personnel under the direction of the Facility Veterinarian. The decision to perform euthanasia will be made by the veterinarian in consultation with the Facility Director or Deputy Director.
(2) The SCCC will participate in the decision in nonmedical emergencies. All euthanasia decisions must be reviewed by the SCCC, preferably prior to euthanasia. In emergencies, where euthanasia has to be performed immediately by the Facility Veterinarian, the circumstances and the decision by the Facility Veterinarian will be presented at the next scheduled or special meeting of the SCCC. The NCRR Project Officer must be notified of the euthanasia event within 72 hours by electronic or telephonic means. Euthanasia of individual chimpanzees may negatively affect the care staff and appropriate counseling and psychological support shall be considered.