44 CFR Appendix A to Part 353, Memorandum of Understanding Between Federal Emergency Management Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have entered into a new Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Relating to Radiological Emergency Planning and Preparedness. This supersedes a memorandum entered into on November 1, 1980 (published December 16, 1980, 45 FR 82713), revised April 9, 1985 (published April 18, 1985, 50 FR 15485), and published as Appendix A to 44 CFR part 353. The substantive changes in the new MOU are: (1) Self-initiated review by the NRC; (2) Early Site Permit process; (3) adoption of FEMA exercise time-frames; (4) incorporation of FEMA definition of exercise deficiency; (5) NRC commitment to work with licensees in support of State and local governments to correct exercise deficiencies; (6) correlation of FEMA actions on withdrawal of approvals under 44 CFR part 350 and NRC enforcement actions; and (7) disaster-initiated reviews in situations that affect offsite emergency infrastructures. The text of the MOU follows.
This Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) establishes a framework of cooperation between the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in radiological emergency response planning matters so that their mutual efforts will be directed toward more effective plans and related preparedness measures at and in the vicinity of nuclear reactors and fuel cycle facilities which are subject to 10 CFR part 50, appendix E, and certain other fuel cycle and materials licensees which have potential for significant accidental offsite radiological releases. The memorandum is responsive to the President's decision of December 7, 1979, that FEMA will take the lead in offsite planning and response, his request that NRC assist FEMA in carrying out this role, and the NRC's continuing statutory responsibility for the radiological health and safety of the public.
On January 14, 1980, the two agencies entered into a “Memorandum of Understanding Between NRC and FEMA to Accomplish a Prompt Improvement in Radiological Emergency Preparedness,” that was responsive to the President's December 7, 1979, statement. A revised and updated Memorandum of Understanding became effective November 1, 1980. The MOU was further revised and updated on April 9, 1985. This MOU is a further revision to reflect the evolving relationship between NRC and FEMA and the experience gained in carrying out the provisions of the previous MOU's. This MOU supersedes these two earlier versions of the MOU.
The general principles agreed to in the previous MOU's and reaffirmed in this MOU, are as follows: FEMA coordinates all Federal planning for the offsite impact of radiological emergencies and takes the lead for assessing offsite radiological emergency response plans 1 and preparedness, makes findings and determinations as to the adequacy and capability of implementing offsite plans, and communicates those findings and determinations to the NRC. The NRC reviews those FEMA findings and determinations in conjunction with the NRC onsite findings for the purpose of making determinations on the overall state of emergency preparedness. These overall findings and determinations are used by NRC to make radiological health and safety decisions in the issuance of licenses and the continued operation of licensed plants to include taking enforcement actions as notices of violations, civil penalties, orders, or shutdown of operating reactors. This delineation of responsibilities avoids duplicative efforts by the NRC staff in offsite preparedness matters. However, if FEMA informs the NRC that an emergency, unforeseen contingency, or other reason would prevent FEMA from providing a requested finding in a reasonable time, then, in consultation with FEMA, the NRC might initiate its own review of offsite emergency preparedness.
1 Assessments of offsite plans may be based on State and local government plans submitted to FEMA under its rule ( 44 CFR Part 350), and as noted in 44 CFR 350.3(f), may also be based on plans currently available to FEMA or furnished to FEMA through the NRC/FEMA Steering Committee.
A separate MOU dated October 22, 1980, deals with NRC/FEMA cooperation and responsibilities in response to an actual or potential radiological emergency. Operations Response Procedures have been developed that implement the provisions of the Incident Response MOU. These documents are intended to be consistent with the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan which describes the relationships, roles, and responsibilities of Federal Agencies for responding to accidents involving peacetime nuclear emergencies. On December 1, 1991, the NRC and FEMA also concluded a separate MOU in support of Executive Order 12657 (FEMA Assistance in Emergency Preparedness Planning at Commercial Nuclear Power Plants).
FEMA- Executive Order 12148 charges the Director, FEMA, with the responsibility to “* * * establish Federal policies for, and coordinate, all civil defense and civil emergency planning, management, mitigation, and assistance functions of Executive agencies” (Section 2-101) and “* * * represent the President in working with State and local governments and the private sector to stimulate vigorous participation in civil emergency preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery programs” (Section 2-104.).
On December 7, 1979, the President, in response to the recommendations of the Kemeny Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island, directed that FEMA assume lead responsibility for all offsite nuclear emergency planning and response.
Specifically, the FEMA responsibilities with respect to radiological emergency preparedness as they relate to NRC are:
1. To take the lead in offsite emergency planning and to review and assess offsite emergency plans and preparedness for adequacy.
2. To make findings and determinations as to whether offsite emergency plans are adequate and can be implemented (e.g., adequacy and maintenance of procedures, training, resources, staffing levels and qualifications, and equipment). Notwithstanding the procedures which are set forth in 44 CFR part 350 for requesting and reaching a FEMA administrative approval of State and local plans, findings, and determinations on the current status of emergency planning and preparedness around particular sites, referred to as interim findings, will be provided by FEMA for use as needed in the NRC licensing process. Such findings will be provided by FEMA on mutually agreed to schedules or on specific NRC request. The request and findings will normally be by written communications between the co-chairs of the NRC/FEMA Steering Committee. An interim finding provided under this arrangement will be an extension of FEMA's procedures for review and approval of offsite radiological emergency plans and preparedness set forth in 44 CFR part 350. It will be based on the review of currently available plans and, if appropriate, joint exercise results related to a specific nuclear power plant site.
If the review involves an application under 10 CFR part 52 for an early site permit, the NRC will forward to FEMA pertinent information provided by the applicant and consult with FEMA as to whether there is any significant impediment to the development of offsite emergency plans. As appropriate, depending upon the nature of information provided by the applicant, the NRC will also request that FEMA determine whether major features of offsite emergency plans submitted by the applicant are acceptable, or whether offsite emergency plans submitted by the applicant are adequate, as discussed below.
An interim finding based only on the review of currently available offsite plans will include an assessment as to whether these plans are adequate when measured against the standards and criteria of NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, and, pending a demonstration through an exercise, whether there is reasonable assurance that the plans can be implemented. The finding will indicate one of the following conditions: (1) Plans are adequate and there is reasonable assurance that they can be implemented with only limited or no corrections needed; (2) plans are adequate, but before a determination can be made as to whether they can be implemented, corrections must be made to the plans or supporting measures must be demonstrated (e.g., adequacy and maintenance of procedures, training, resources, staffing levels and qualifications, and equipment) or (3) plans are inadequate and cannot be implemented until they are revised to correct deficiencies noted in the Federal review.
If, in FEMA's view, the plans that are available are not completed or are not ready for review, FEMA will provide NRC with a status report delineating milestones for preparation of the plan by the offsite authorities as well as FEMA's actions to assist in timely development and review of the plans.
An interim finding on preparedness will be based on review of currently available plans and joint exercise results and will include an assessment as to (1) whether offsite emergency plans are adequate as measured against the standards and criteria of NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1 and (2) whether the exercise(s) demonstrated that there is reasonable assurance that the plans can be implemented.
An interim finding on preparedness will indicate one of the following conditions: (1) There is reasonable assurance that the plans are adequate and can be implemented as demonstrated in an exercise; (2) there are deficiencies that must be corrected; or (3) FEMA is undecided and will provide a schedule of actions leading to a decision.
3. To assume responsibility, as a supplement to State, local, and utility efforts, for radiological emergency preparedness training of State and local officials.
4. To develop and issue an updated series of interagency assignments which delineate respective agency capabilities and responsibilities and define procedures for coordination and direction for emergency planning and response. [Current assignments are in 44 CFR part 351, March 11, 1982. ( 47 FR 10758)]
NRC-The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, requires that the NRC grant licenses only if the health and safety of the public is adequately protected. While the Atomic Energy Act does not specifically require emergency plans and related preparedness measures, the NRC requires consideration of overall emergency preparedness as a part of the licensing process. The NRC rules ( 10 CFR 50.33, 50.34, 50.47, 50.54, and appendix E to 10 CFR part 50, and 10 CFR part 52) include requirements for the licensee's emergency plans.
Specifically, the NRC responsibilities for radiological emergency preparedness are:
1. To assess licensee emergency plans for adequacy. This review will include organizations with whom licensees have written agreements to provide onsite support services under emergency conditions.
2. To verify that licensee emergency plans are adequately implemented (e.g., adequacy and maintenance of procedures, training, resources, staffing levels and qualifications, and equipment).
3. To review the FEMA findings and determinations as to whether offsite plans are adequate and can be implemented.
4. To make radiological health and safety decisions with regard to the overall state of emergency preparedness (i.e., integration of emergency preparedness onsite as determined by the NRC and offsite as determined by FEMA and reviewed by NRC) such as assurance for continued operation, for issuance of operating licenses, or for taking enforcement actions, such as notices of violations, civil penalties, orders, or shutdown of operating reactors.
FEMA will provide support to the NRC for licensing reviews related to reactors, fuel facilities, and materials licensees with regard to the assessment of the adequacy of offsite radiological emergency response plans and preparedness. This will include timely submittal of an evaluation suitable for inclusion in NRC safety evaluation reports.
Substantially prior to the time that a FEMA evaluation is required with regard to fuel facility or materials license review, NRC will identify those fuel and materials licensees with potential for significant accidental offsite radiological releases and transmit a request for review to FEMA as the emergency plans are completed.
FEMA routine support will include providing assessments, findings and determinations (interim and final) on offsite plans and preparedness related to reactor license reviews. To support its findings and determinations, FEMA will make expert witnesses available before the Commission, the NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, NRC hearing boards and administrative law judges, for any court actions, and during any related discovery proceedings.
FEMA will appear in NRC licensing proceedings as part of the presentation of the NRC staff. FEMA counsel will normally present FEMA witnesses and be permitted, at the discretion of the NRC licensing board, to cross-examine the witnesses of parties, other than the NRC witnesses, on matters involving FEMA findings and determinations, policies, or operations; however, FEMA will not be asked to testify on status reports. FEMA is not a party to NRC proceedings and, therefore, is not subject to formal discovery requirements placed upon parties to NRC proceedings. Consistent with available resources, however, FEMA will respond informally to discovery requests by parties. Specific assignment of professional responsibilities between NRC and FEMA counsel will be primarily the responsibility of the attorneys assigned to a particular case. In situations where questions of professional responsibility cannot be resolved by the attorneys assigned, resolution of any differences will be made by the General Counsel of FEMA and the General Counsel of the NRC or their designees. NRC will request the presiding Board to place FEMA on the service list for all litigation in which it is expected to participate.
Nothing in this MOU shall be construed in any way to diminish NRC's responsibility for protecting the radiological health and safety of the public.
NRC will assist in the development and review of offsite plans and preparedness through its membership on the Regional Assistance Committees (RAC). FEMA will chair the Regional Assistance Committees. Consistent with NRC's statutory responsibility, NRC will recognize FEMA as the interface with State and local governments for interpreting offsite radiological emergency planning and preparedness criteria as they affect those governments and for reporting to those governments the results of any evaluation of their radiological emergency plans and preparedness.
Where questions arise concerning the interpretation of the criteria, such questions will continue to be referred to FEMA Headquarters, and when appropriate, to the NRC/FEMA Steering Committee to assure uniform interpretation.
FEMA and NRC will cooperate in determining exercise requirements for licensees, and State and local governments. They will also jointly observe and evaluate exercises. NRC and FEMA will institute procedures to enhance the review of objectives and scenarios for joint exercises. This review is to assure that both the onsite considerations of NRC and the offsite considerations of FEMA are adequately addressed and integrated in a manner that will provide for a technically sound exercise upon which an assessment of preparedness capabilities can be based. The NRC/FEMA procedures will provide for the availability of exercise objectives and scenarios sufficiently in advance of scheduled exercises to allow enough time for adequate review by NRC and FEMA and correction of any deficiencies by the licensee. The failure of a licensee to develop a scenario that adequately addresses both onsite and offsite considerations may result in NRC taking enforcement actions.
The FEMA reports will be a part of an interim finding on emergency preparedness; or will be the result of an exercise conducted pursuant to FEMA's review and approval procedures under 44 CFR part 350 and NRC's requirement under 10 CFR part 50, appendix E, Section IV.F. Exercise evaluations will identify one of the following conditions: (1) There is reasonable assurance that the plans are adequate and can be implemented as demonstrated in the exercise; (2) there are deficiencies that must be corrected; or (3) FEMA is undecided and will provide a schedule of actions leading to a decision. The schedule for issuance of the draft and final exercise reports will be as shown in FEMA-REP-14 (Radiological Emergency Preparedness Exercise Manual).
The deficiency referred to in (2) above is defined as an observed or identified inadequacy of organizational performance in an exercise that could cause a finding that offsite emergency preparedness is not adequate to provide reasonable assurance that appropriate protective measures can be taken in the event of a radiological emergency to protect the health and safety of the public living in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant. Because of the potential impact of deficiencies on emergency preparedness, they should be corrected within 120 days through appropriate remedial actions, including remedial exercises, drills, or other actions.
Where there are deficiencies of the types noted above, and when there is a potential for remedial actions, FEMA Headquarters will promptly (1-2 days) discuss these with NRC Headquarters. Within 10 days of the exercise, official notification of identified deficiencies will be made by FEMA to the State, NRC Headquarters, and the RAC with an information copy to the licensee. NRC will formally notify the licensee of the deficiencies and monitor the licensee's efforts to work with State and local authorities to correct the deficiencies. Approximately 60 days after official notification of the deficiency, the NRC, in consultation with FEMA, will assess the progress being made toward resolution of the deficiencies.
If FEMA determines under 44 CFR 350.13 of its regulations that offsite emergency plans or preparedness are not adequate to provide reasonable assurance that appropriate protective measures can be taken in the event of radiological emergency to protect the health and safety of the public, FEMA shall, as described in its rule, withdraw approval.
Upon receiving notification of such action from FEMA, the NRC will promptly review FEMA's findings and determinations and formally document the NRC's position. When, as described in 10 CFR 50.54(s)(2)(ii) and 50.54(s)(3) of its regulations, the NRC finds the state of emergency preparedness does not provide reasonable assurance that adequate protective measures can and will be taken in the event of a radiological emergency, the NRC will notify the affected licensee accordingly and start the “120-day clock.” 2
2 Per 10 CFR 50.54(s)(2)(ii), the Commission will determine whether the reactor shall be shut down or other appropriate enforcement actions if such conditions are not corrected within four months. The NRC is not limited by this provision of the rule, for, as stated in 10 CFR 50.54(s)(3), “Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as limiting the authority of the Commission to take action under any other regulation or authority of the Commission or at any time other than that specified in this paragraph” (emphasis added).
NRC has lead responsibility for the development of emergency planning and preparedness guidance for licensees. FEMA has lead responsibility for the development of radiological emergency planning and preparedness guidance for State and local agencies. NRC and FEMA recognize the need for an integrated, coordinated approach to radiological emergency planning and preparedness by NRC licensees and State and local governments. NRC and FEMA will each, therefore, provide opportunity for the other agency to review and comment on such guidance (including interpretations of agreed joint guidance) prior to adoption as formal agency guidance.
FEMA and NRC will each provide the other with continued access to those automatic data processing support systems which contain relevant emergency preparedness data.
Ongoing NRC and FEMA research and development programs that are related to State and local radiological emergency planning and preparedness will be coordinated. NRC and FEMA will each provide opportunity for the other agency to review and comment on relevant research and development programs prior to implementing them.
FEMA will take the lead in developing public information and educational programs. NRC will assist FEMA by reviewing for accuracy educational materials concerning radiation, and its hazards and information regarding appropriate actions to be taken by the general public in the event of an accident involving radioactive materials.
Disasters that destroy roads, buildings, communications, transportation resources or other offsite infrastructure in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant can degrade the capabilities of offsite response organizations in the 10-mile plume emergency planning zone. Examples of events that could cause such devastation are hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, major fires, large explosions, and riots.
If a disaster damages the area around a licensed operating nuclear power plant to an extent that FEMA seriously questions the continued adequacy of offsite emergency preparedness, FEMA will inform the NRC promptly. Likewise, the NRC will inform FEMA promptly of any information it receives from licensees, its inspectors, or others, that raises serious questions about the continued adequacy of offsite emergency preparedness. If FEMA concludes that a disaster-initiated review of offsite radiological emergency preparedness is necessary to determine if offsite emergency preparedness is still adequate, it will inform the NRC in writing, as soon as practicable, including a schedule for conduct of the review. FEMA will also give the NRC (1) interim written reports of its findings, as appropriate, and (2) a final written report on the results of its review.
The disaster-initiated review is performed to reaffirm the radiological emergency preparedness capabilities of affected offsite jurisdictions located in the 10-mile emergency planning zone and is not intended to be a comprehensive review of offsite plans and preparedness.
The NRC will consider information provided by FEMA Headquarters and pertinent findings from FEMA's disaster-initiated review in making decisions regarding the restart or continued operation of an affected operating nuclear power reactor. The NRC will notify FEMA Headquarters, in writing, of the schedule for restart of an affected reactor and keep FEMA Headquarters informed of changes in that schedule.
The NRC/FEMA Steering Committee on Emergency Preparedness will continue to be the focal point for coordination of emergency planning and preparedness. As discussed in Section I of this agreement, response activities between these two agencies are addressed in a separate MOU. The Steering Committee will consist of an equal number of members to represent each agency with one vote per agency. When the Steering Committee cannot agree on the resolution of an issue, the issue will be referred to NRC and FEMA management. The NRC members will have lead responsibility for licensee planning and preparedness and the FEMA members will have lead responsibility for offsite planning and preparedness. The Steering Committee will assure coordination of plans and preparedness evaluation activities and revise, as necessary, acceptance criteria for licensee, State and local radiological emergency planning and preparedness. NRC and FEMA will then consider and adopt criteria, as appropriate, in their respective jurisdictions. (See Attachment 1).
A. The normal point of contact for implementation of the points in this MOU will be the NRC/FEMA Steering Committee.
B. The Steering Committee will establish the day-to-day procedures for assuring that the arrangements of this MOU are carried out.
A. This MOU shall be effective as of date of signature and shall continue in effect unless terminated by either party upon 30 days notice in writing.
B. Amendments or modifications to this MOU may be made upon written agreement by both parties.
Approved for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Dated: June 17, 1993.
Executive Director for Operations.
Dated: June 17, 1993.
Approved for the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Acting Associate Director, State and Local Programs and Support.
Assure coordination of efforts to maintain and improve emergency planning and preparedness for nuclear power reactors as described in the NRC and FEMA rules and the NRC/FEMA MOU on Radiological Emergency Planning and Preparedness. Coordinate consistent criteria for licensee, State and local emergency plans and preparedness.
The NRC and FEMA consignees of this MOU will designate respective co-chairs for the Steering Committee. The designated co-chairs will, in turn, appoint their respective members to the Committee.
Changes to the membership of the NRC/FEMA Steering Committee may be made by the co-chairs representing the agency whose member is being changed.
The Steering Committee will maintain a record of each meeting to include identification of issues discussed and conclusions reached. No meeting will be held without the attendance and participation of at least the co-chairs or two assigned members of each agency.
When items involving responsibilities of other NRC or FEMA offices are discussed, the affected offices will be contacted as appropriate.