49 CFR § 228.403 - Nonapplication, exemption, and definitions.
(a) General. This subpart does not apply to a situation involving any of the following:
(1) A casualty;
(2) An unavoidable accident;
(3) An act of God; or
(4) A delay resulting from a cause unknown and unforeseeable to a railroad or its officer or agent in charge of the employee when the employee left a terminal.
(b) Exemption. The Administrator may exempt a railroad having not more than a total of 15 train employees, signal employees, and dispatching service employees from the limitations imposed by this subpart on the railroad's train employees who are engaged in commuter or intercity rail passenger transportation. The Administrator may allow the exemption from this subpart after a full hearing, for good cause shown, and on deciding that the exemption is in the public interest and will not affect safety adversely. The exemption shall be for a specific period of time and is subject to review at least annually. The exemption may not authorize a railroad to require or allow its train employees to be on duty more than a total of 16 hours in a 24-hour period.
(c) Definitions. In this subpart -
Commuter or intercity rail passenger transportation has the meaning assigned by section 24102 of title 49, United States Code, to the terms “commuter rail passenger transportation” or “intercity rail passenger transportation.”
Train employee who is engaged in commuter or intercity rail passenger transportation includes a train employee who is engaged in commuter or intercity rail passenger transportation regardless of the nature of the entity by whom the employee is employed and any other train employee who is employed by a commuter railroad or an intercity passenger railroad. The term excludes a train employee of another type of railroad who is engaged in work train service even though that work train service might be related to providing commuter or intercity rail passenger transportation, and a train employee of another type of railroad who serves as a pilot on a train operated by a commuter railroad or intercity passenger railroad.