49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

§ 531.5 Fuel economy standards.
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of passenger automobiles shall comply with the average fuel economy standards in Table I, expressed in miles per gallon, in the model year specified as applicable:
(b) For model year 2011, a manufacturer's passenger automobile fleet shall comply with the fuel economy level calculated for that model year according to Figure 1 and the appropriate values in Table II.
Figure 1:
Where:
N is the total number (sum) of passenger automobiles produced by a manufacturer,
N i is the number (sum) of the ith model passenger automobile produced by the manufacturer, and
T i is fuel economy target of the ith model passenger automobile, which is determined according to the following formula, rounded to the nearest hundredth:
Where:
Parameters a, b, c, and d are defined in Table II;
e = 2.718; and
x = footprint (in square feet, rounded to the nearest tenth) of the vehicle model
(c) For model years 2012-2016, a manufacturer's passenger automobile fleet shall comply with the fuel economy level calculated for that model year according to Figure 2 and the appropriate values in Table III.
Where:
CAFE required is the required level for a given fleet (domestic passenger automobiles or import passenger automobiles),
Subscript i is a designation of multiple groups of automobiles, where each group's designation, i.e., i = 1, 2, 3, etc., represents automobiles that share a unique model type and footprint within the applicable fleet, either domestic passenger automobiles or import passenger automobiles.
Production i is the number of passenger automobiles produced for sale in the United States within each ith designation, i.e., which shares the same model type and footprint.
TARGET i is the fuel economy target in miles per gallon (mpg) applicable to the footprint of passenger automobiles within each ith designation, i.e., which shares the same model type and footprint, calculated according to Figure 3 and rounded to the nearest hundredth of a mpg, i.e., 35.455 = 35.46 mpg, and the summations in the numerator and denominator are both performed over all models in the fleet in question.
Where:
TARGET is the fuel economy target (in mpg) applicable to vehicles of a given footprint (FOOTPRINT, in square feet),
Parameters a, b, c, and d are defined in Table III, and
The MIN and MAX functions take the minimum and maximum, respectively, of the included values.
Table III—Parameters for the Passenger Automobile Fuel Economy Targets
Model year Parameters
a b c d
2012 35.95 27.95 0.0005308 0.006057
2013 36.80 28.46 0.0005308 0.005410
2014 37.75 29.03 0.0005308 0.004725
2015 39.24 29.90 0.0005308 0.003719
2016 41.09 30.96 0.0005308 0.002573
(d) In addition to the requirement of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, each manufacturer shall also meet the minimum standard for domestically manufactured passenger automobiles expressed in Table IV:
Table IV
Model year Minimum standard
2011 27.8
2012 30.7
2013 31.4
2014 32.1
2015 33.3
2016 34.7
(e) The following manufacturers shall comply with the standards indicated below for the specified model years:
(1) Avanti Motor Corporation.
Average Fuel Economy Standard
Model year Miles per gallon
1978 16.1
1979 14.5
1980 15.8
1981 18.2
1982 18.2
1983 16.9
1984 16.9
1985 16.9
(2) Rolls-Royce Motors, Inc.
Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1978 10.7
1979 10.8
1980 11.1
1981 10.7
1982 10.6
1983 9.9
1984 10.0
1985 10.0
1986 11.0
1987 11.2
1988 11.2
1989 11.2
1990 12.7
1991 12.7
1992 13.8
1993 13.8
1994 13.8
1995 14.6
1996 14.6
1997 15.1
1998 16.3
1999 16.3
(3) Checker Motors Corporation.
Average Fuel Economy Standard
Model year Miles per gallon
1978 17.6
1979 16.5
1980 18.5
1981 18.3
1982 18.4
(4) Aston Martin Lagonda, Inc.
Average Fuel Economy Standard
Model year Miles per gallon
1979 11.5
1980 12.1
1981 12.2
1982 12.2
1983 11.3
1984 11.3
1985 11.4
(5) Excalibur Automobile Corporation.
Average Fuel Economy Standard
Model year Miles per gallon
1978 11.5
1979 11.5
1980 16.2
1981 17.9
1982 17.9
1983 16.6
1984 16.6
1985 16.6
(6) Lotus Cars Ltd.
Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1994 24.2
1995 23.3
(7) Officine Alfieri Maserati, S.p.A.
Average Fuel Economy Standard
Model year Miles per gallon
1978 12.5
1979 12.5
1980 9.5
1984 17.9
1985 16.8
(8) Lamborghini of North America.
Average Fuel Economy Standard
Model year Miles per gallon
1983 13.7
1984 13.7
(9) LondonCoach Co., Inc.
Average Fuel Economy Standard
Model year Miles per gallon
1985 21.0
1986 21.0
1987 21.0
(10) Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A./Vector Aeromotive Corporation.
Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1995 12.8
1996 12.6
1997 12.5
(11) Dutcher Motors, Inc.
Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1986 16.0
1987 16.0
1988 16.0
1992 17.0
1993 17.0
1994 17.0
1995 17.0
(12) MedNet, Inc.
Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1996 17.0
1997 17.0
1998 17.0
(13) Vector Aeromotive Corporation.
Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1998 12.1
(14) Qvale Automotive Group Srl.
Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
2000 22.0
2001 22.0
(15) Spyker Automobielen B.V.
Average Fuel Economy Standard
Model year Miles per gallon
2006 18.9
2007 18.9
[43 FR 28204, June 29, 1978]
Editorial Note:
For Federal Register citations affecting § 531.5 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.
Beta! The text on the eCFR tab represents the unofficial eCFR text at ecfr.gov.
§ 531.5 Fuel economy standards.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, each manufacturer of passenger automobiles shall comply with the fleet average fuel economy standards in Table I, expressed in miles per gallon, in the model year specified as applicable:

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(b) For model year 2011, a manufacturer's passenger automobile fleet shall comply with the fleet average fuel economy level calculated for that model year according to Figure 1 and the appropriate values in Table II.

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Where:
N is the total number (sum) of passenger automobiles produced by a manufacturer;
N i is the number (sum) of the ith passenger automobile model produced by the manufacturer; and
T i is the fuel economy target of the ith model passenger automobile, which is determined according to the following formula, rounded to the nearest hundredth:

View or download PDF

Where:
Parameters a, b, c, and d are defined in Table II;
e = 2.718; and
x = footprint (in square feet, rounded to the nearest tenth) of the vehicle model.

Table II-Parameters for the Passenger Automobile Fuel Economy Targets

Model year Parameters
a (mpg) b (mpg) c (gal/mi/ft 2) d (gal/mi)
2011 31.20 24.00 51.41 1.91

(c) For model years 2012-2025, a manufacturer's passenger automobile fleet shall comply with the fleet average fuel economy level calculated for that model year according to Figure 2 and the appropriate values in Table III.

View or download PDF

Where:
CAFE required is the fleet average fuel economy standard for a given fleet (domestic passenger automobiles or import passenger automobiles);
Subscript i is a designation of multiple groups of automobiles, where each group's designation, i.e., i = 1, 2, 3, etc., represents automobiles that share a unique model type and footprint within the applicable fleet, either domestic passenger automobiles or import passenger automobiles;
Production i is the number of passenger automobiles produced for sale in the United States within each ith designation, i.e., which share the same model type and footprint;

TARGET i is the fuel economy target in miles per gallon (mpg) applicable to the footprint of passenger automobiles within each ith designation, i.e., which share the same model type and footprint, calculated according to Figure 3 and rounded to the nearest hundredth of a mpg, i.e., 35.455 = 35.46 mpg, and the summations in the numerator and denominator are both performed over all models in the fleet in question.

View or download PDF

Where:
TARGET is the fuel economy target (in mpg) applicable to vehicles of a given footprint (FOOTPRINT, in square feet);
Parameters a, b,c, and d are defined in Table III; and
The MIN and MAX functions take the minimum and maximum, respectively, of the included values.

Table III-Parameters for the Passenger Automobile Fuel Economy Targets, MYs 2012-2025

Model year Parameters
a (mpg) b (mpg) c (gal/mi/ft 2) d (gal/mi)
2012 35.95 27.95 0.0005308 0.006057
2013 36.80 28.46 0.0005308 0.005410
2014 37.75 29.03 0.0005308 0.004725
2015 39.24 29.90 0.0005308 0.003719
2016 41.09 30.96 0.0005308 0.002573
2017 43.61 32.65 0.0005131 0.001896
2018 45.21 33.84 0.0004954 0.001811
2019 46.87 35.07 0.0004783 0.001729
2020 48.74 36.47 0.0004603 0.001643
2021 50.83 38.02 0.0004419 0.001555
2022 53.21 39.79 0.0004227 0.001463
2023 55.71 41.64 0.0004043 0.001375
2024 58.32 43.58 0.0003867 0.001290
2025 61.07 45.61 0.0003699 0.001210

(d) In addition to the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, each manufacturer shall also meet the minimum fleet standard for domestically manufactured passenger automobiles expressed in Table IV:

Table IV - Minimum Fuel Economy Standards for Domestically Manufactured Passenger Automobiles, MYs 2011-2021

Model year Minimum standard
2011 27.8
2012 30.7
2013 31.4
2014 32.1
2015 33.3
2016 34.7
2017 36.7
2018 38.0
2019 39.4
2020 40.9
2021 42.7
2022 44.7
2023 46.8
2024 49.0
2025 51.3

(e) For model years 2022-2025, each manufacturer shall comply with the standards set forth in paragraphs (c) and (d) in this section, if NHTSA determines in a rulemaking, initiated after January 1, 2017, and conducted in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 32902, that the standards in paragraphs (c) and (d) are the maximum feasible standards for model years 2022-2025. If, for any of those model years, NHTSA determines that the maximum feasible standard for passenger cars and the corresponding minimum standard for domestically manufactured passenger cars should be set at a different level, manufacturers shall comply with those different standards in lieu of the standards set forth for those model years in paragraphs (c) and (d), and NHTSA will revise this section to reflect the different standards.

(f) The following manufacturers shall comply with the standards indicated below for the specified model years:

(1) Avanti Motor Corporation.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
1978 16.1
1979 14.5
1980 15.8
1981 18.2
1982 18.2
1983 16.9
1984 16.9
1985 16.9

(2) Rolls-Royce Motors, Inc.

Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1978 10.7
1979 10.8
1980 11.1
1981 10.7
1982 10.6
1983 9.9
1984 10.0
1985 10.0
1986 11.0
1987 11.2
1988 11.2
1989 11.2
1990 12.7
1991 12.7
1992 13.8
1993 13.8
1994 13.8
1995 14.6
1996 14.6
1997 15.1
1998 16.3
1999 16.3

(3) Checker Motors Corporation.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
1978 17.6
1979 16.5
1980 18.5
1981 18.3
1982 18.4

(4) Aston Martin Lagonda, Inc.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
1979 11.5
1980 12.1
1981 12.2
1982 12.2
1983 11.3
1984 11.3
1985 11.4

(5) Excalibur Automobile Corporation.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
1978 11.5
1979 11.5
1980 16.2
1981 17.9
1982 17.9
1983 16.6
1984 16.6
1985 16.6

(6) Lotus Cars Ltd.

Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1994 24.2
1995 23.3

(7) Officine Alfieri Maserati, S.p.A.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
1978 12.5
1979 12.5
1980 9.5
1984 17.9
1985 16.8

(8) Lamborghini of North America.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
1983 13.7
1984 13.7

(9) LondonCoach Co., Inc.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
1985 21.0
1986 21.0
1987 21.0

(10) Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A./Vector Aeromotive Corporation.

Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1995 12.8
1996 12.6
1997 12.5

(11) Dutcher Motors, Inc.

Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1986 16.0
1987 16.0
1988 16.0
1992 17.0
1993 17.0
1994 17.0
1995 17.0

(12) MedNet, Inc.

Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1996 17.0
1997 17.0
1998 17.0

(13) Vector Aeromotive Corporation.

Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1998 12.1

(14) Qvale Automotive Group Srl.

Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
2000 22.0
2001 22.0

(15) Spyker Automobielen B.V.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
2006 18.9
2007 18.9
[43 FR 28204, June 29, 1978]
Editorial Note:
For Federal Register citations affecting § 531.5 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 49 - TRANSPORTATION