# 49 CFR § 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

§ 531.5 Fuel economy standards.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, each manufacturer of passenger automobiles shall comply with the fleet average fuel economy standards in Table 1 to this paragraph (a), expressed in miles per gallon, in the model year specified as applicable:

Table 1 to § 531.5(a)

Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
1978 18.0
1979 19.0
1980 20.0
1981 22.0
1982 24.0
1983 26.0
1984 27.0
1985 27.5
1986 26.0
1987 26.0
1988 26.0
1989 26.5
1990-2010 27.5

(b) For model year 2011, a manufacturer's passenger automobile fleet shall comply with the fleet average fuel economy level calculated for that model year according to Figure 1 to this paragraph (b) and the appropriate values in Table 2 to this paragraph (b).

Where:
N is the total number (sum) of passenger automobiles produced by a manufacturer;
Ni is the number (sum) of the ith passenger automobile model produced by the manufacturer; and
Ti is the fuel economy target of the ith model passenger automobile, which is determined according to the following formula, rounded to the nearest hundredth:
Where:
Parameters a, b, c, and d are defined in Table 2 to this paragraph (b);
e = 2.718; and
x = footprint (in square feet, rounded to the nearest tenth) of the vehicle model.

Table 2 to § 531.5(b) - Parameters for the Passenger Automobile Fuel Economy Targets

Model year Parameters
a (mpg) b (mpg) c (gal/mi/ft 2) d (gal/mi)
2011 31.20 24.00 51.41 1.91

(c) For model years 2012-2026, a manufacturer's passenger automobile fleet shall comply with the fleet average fuel economy level calculated for that model year (MY) according to Figure 2 to this paragraph (c) and the appropriate values in Table 3 to this paragraph (c).

Where:
CAFErequired is the fleet average fuel economy standard for a given fleet (domestic passenger automobiles or import passenger automobiles);
Subscript i is a designation of multiple groups of automobiles, where each group's designation, i.e., i = 1, 2, 3, etc., represents automobiles that share a unique model type and footprint within the applicable fleet, either domestic passenger automobiles or import passenger automobiles;
Productioni is the number of passenger automobiles produced for sale in the United States within each ith designation, i.e., which share the same model type and footprint; and
TARGETi is the fuel economy target in miles per gallon (mpg) applicable to the footprint of passenger automobiles within each ith designation, i.e., which share the same model type and footprint, calculated according to Figure 3 to this paragraph (c) and rounded to the nearest hundredth of a mpg, i.e., 35.455 = 35.46 mpg, and the summations in the numerator and denominator are both performed over all models in the fleet in question.
Where:
TARGET is the fuel economy target (in mpg) applicable to vehicles of a given footprint (FOOTPRINT, in square feet);
Parameters a, b, c, and d are defined in Table 3 to this paragraph (c); and
The MIN and MAX functions take the minimum and maximum, respectively, of the included values.

Table 3 to § 531.5(c) - Parameters for the Passenger Automobile Fuel Economy Targets

[MYs 2012-2026]

Model year Parameters
a
(mpg)
b
(mpg)
c
(gal/mi/ft 2)
d
(gal/mi)
2012 35.95 27.95 0.0005308 0.006057
2013 36.80 28.46 0.0005308 0.005410
2014 37.75 29.03 0.0005308 0.004725
2015 39.24 29.90 0.0005308 0.003719
2016 41.09 30.96 0.0005308 0.002573
2017 43.61 32.65 0.0005131 0.001896
2018 45.21 33.84 0.0004954 0.001811
2019 46.87 35.07 0.0004783 0.001729
2020 48.74 36.47 0.0004603 0.001643
2021 49.48 37.02 0.000453 0.00162
2022 50.24 37.59 0.000447 0.00159
2023 51.00 38.16 0.000440 0.00157
2024 55.44 41.48 0.000405 0.00144
2025 60.26 45.08 0.000372 0.00133
2026 66.95 50.09 0.000335 0.00120

(d) In addition to the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, each manufacturer shall also meet the minimum fleet standard for domestically manufactured passenger automobiles expressed in Table 4 to this paragraph (d):

Table 4 to § 531.5(d) - Minimum Fuel Economy Standards for Domestically Manufactured Passenger Automobiles

[MYs 2011-2026]

Model year Minimum standard
2011 27.8
2012 30.7
2013 31.4
2014 32.1
2015 33.3
2016 34.7
2017 36.7
2018 38.0
2019 39.4
2020 40.9
2021 39.9
2022 40.6
2023 41.1
2024 44.3
2025 48.1
2026 53.5

(e) The following manufacturers shall comply with the standards indicated in paragraphs (e)(1) through (15) of this section for the specified model years:

(1) Avanti Motor Corporation.

Table 5 to § 531.5(e)(1) - Average Fuel Economy Standards

Model year Miles per gallon
1978 16.1
1979 14.5
1980 15.8
1981 18.2
1982 18.2
1983 16.9
1984 16.9
1985 16.9

(2) Rolls-Royce Motors, Inc.

Table 6 to § 531.5(e)(2) - Average Fuel Economy Standards

Model year Miles per gallon
1978 10.7
1979 10.8
1980 11.1
1981 10.7
1982 10.6
1983 9.9
1984 10.0
1985 10.0
1986 11.0
1987 11.2
1988 11.2
1989 11.2
1990 12.7
1991 12.7
1992 13.8
1993 13.8
1994 13.8
1995 14.6
1996 14.6
1997 15.1
1998 16.3
1999 16.3

(3) Checker Motors Corporation.

Table 7 to § 531.5(e)(3) - Average Fuel Economy Standards

Model year Miles per gallon
1978 17.6
1979 16.5
1980 18.5
1981 18.3
1982 18.4

(4) Aston Martin Lagonda, Inc.

Table 8 to § 531.5(e)(4) - Average Fuel Economy Standards

Model year Miles per gallon
1979 11.5
1980 12.1
1981 12.2
1982 12.2
1983 11.3
1984 11.3
1985 11.4

(5) Excalibur Automobile Corporation.

Table 9 to § 531.5(e)(5) - Average Fuel Economy Standards

Model year Miles per
gallon
1978 11.5
1979 11.5
1980 16.2
1981 17.9
1982 17.9
1983 16.6
1984 16.6
1985 16.6

(6) Lotus Cars Ltd.

Table 10 to § 531.5(e)(6) - Average Fuel Economy Standards

Model year Miles per
gallon
1994 24.2
1995 23.3

(7) Officine Alfieri Maserati, S.p.A.

Table 11 to § 531.5(e)(7) - Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per
gallon
1978 12.5
1979 12.5
1980 9.5
1984 17.9
1985 16.8

(8) Lamborghini of North America.

Table 12 to § 531.5(e)(8) - Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per
gallon
1983 13.7
1984 13.7

(9) LondonCoach Co., Inc.

Table 13 to § 531.5(e)(9) - Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per
gallon
1985 21.0
1986 21.0
1987 21.0

(10) Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A./Vector Aeromotive Corporation.

Table 14 § 531.5(e)(10) - Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per
gallon
1995 12.8
1996 12.6
1997 12.5

(11) Dutcher Motors, Inc.

Table 15 to § 531.5(e)(11) - Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per
gallon
1986 16.0
1987 16.0
1988 16.0
1992 17.0
1993 17.0
1994 17.0
1995 17.0

(12) MedNet, Inc.

Table 16 to § 531.5(e)(12) - Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Average
fuel
economy
standard
(miles per
gallon)
1996 17.0
1997 17.0
1998 17.0

(13) Vector Aeromotive Corporation.

Table 17 to § 531.5(e)(13) - Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per
gallon
1998 12.1

(14) Qvale Automotive Group Srl.

Table 18 to § 531.5(e)(14) - Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per
gallon
2000 22.0
2001 22.0

(15) Spyker Automobielen B.V.

Table 19 to § 531.5(e)(15) - Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per
gallon
2006 18.9
2007 18.9