49 CFR Appendix B to Part 173, Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and Receptacles
1. The purpose of this procedure is to determine the chemical compatibility and permeability of liquid hazardous materials packaged in plastic packaging and receptacles. Alternatives for this procedure are permitted as specified in § 173.24(e)(3)(iii) of this subchapter.
2. Compatibility and rate of permeation are determined by subjecting full size plastic containers (or smaller containers as permitted in paragraph 4 of this appendix) and hazardous material lading to one of the following combinations of time and temperature:
a. Test Method 1: 180 days at a temperature no lower than 18 °C. (64 °F.)
b. Test Method 2: 28 days at a temperature no lower than 50 °C. (122 °F.)
c. Test Method 3: 14 days at a temperature no lower than 60 °C. (140 °F.)
3. Regardless of which test method is used, at least three sample containers shall be tested for each combination of hazardous material and size and design of container. Fill containers to rated capacity with the specific hazardous material (at the concentration to be transported) and close as for shipment. For the first and last 24 hours of storage under the selected test method, place the containers with closures downward, except that containers fitted with a vent are so placed on each occasion for five minutes only.
4. For testing under Test Method 2 or 3 in those instances where it is not practicable to use full size containers, smaller containers may be used. The small container shall be manufactured by the same process as the larger container (for example, using the same method of molding and processing temperatures) and be made of identical resins, pigments and additives.
5. Determine filled container weight or net weight of contents both before and after storage under the selected test method. Rate of permeation is determined from loss of hazardous materials contents, during the conduct of the test, expressed as a percentage of the original weight.
6. After storage under the selected test method, the container shall be drained, rinsed, filled to rated capacity with water and, with filled container at ambient temperature, dropped from a height determined in accordance with § 178.603(e) of this subchapter onto a rigid non-resilient, flat and horizontal surface.
7. Each of the following constitute test failure:
a. Visible evidence of permanent deformation due to vapor pressure build-up or collapse of walls, deterioration, swelling, crazing, cracking, excessive corrosion, oxidization, embrittlement, leakage, rupture or other defects likely to cause premature failure or a hazardous condition.
b. For materials meeting the definition of a poison according to this subchapter, a rate of permeation in excess of 0.5% determined over the test period. For all other hazardous materials, a rate of permeation in excess of 2.0% determined over the test period.