levels of radiation from storage containers and source changers.
The maximum exposure rate limits for storage containers and
source changers are 200 millirem (2 millisieverts) per hour at any exterior
surface and 10 millirem (0.1 millisieverts) per hour at 1-meter from any
exterior surface with the sealed source in the shielded
radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers:
(a) Each radiographic exposure device shall
have a lock or outer locked container designed to prevent unauthorized or
accidental production of radiation or removal of a sealed source from its
shielded position. Each radiographic exposure device or storage container shall
be kept locked (and if a keyed-lock, with the key removed at all times) when
not under the direct surveillance of a radiographer or a radiographer's
assistant except at permanent radiographic installations as stated in paragraph
(1) of Rule 0400-20-08-.06. In addition, during radiographic operations a
sealed source assembly shall be secured in the shielded position each time the
source is returned to that position.
(b) Each sealed source storage container and
source changer shall have a lock or outer locked container designed to prevent
unauthorized or accidental removal of the sealed source from its shielded
position. Storage containers and source changers shall be kept locked (and if a
keyed-lock, with the key removed at all times) when containing sealed sources
except when under the direct surveillance of a radiographer or a radiographer's
(a) Locked radiographic exposure
devices, source changers and storage containers shall be physically secured to
prevent tampering with or removal by unauthorized persons.
(b) The licensee shall store licensed
material in a manner that will minimize danger from explosion or
(a) The licensee or
registrant shall maintain sufficient calibrated and operable radiation survey
instruments at each location where sources of radiation are present to make
physical radiation surveys as required by this chapter and Chapter 0400-20-05.
Instrumentation required by this paragraph shall have a range such that 2
millirems (0.02 millisieverts) per hour through 1 rem (0.01 sievert) per hour
can be measured.
survey instrument shall be calibrated:
energies appropriate for use and at intervals not to exceed 6 months and after
each instrument servicing, except for battery changes.
2. Such that accuracy within plus or minus 20
percent can be demonstrated; and
For linear scale instruments, at 2 points located approximately one-third and
two-thirds of full scale on each scale; for logarithmic scale instruments, at
mid-range of each decade and at 2 points of at least one decade; and for
digital instruments, at 3 points between 2 and 1,000 millirems (0.02 and 10
millisieverts) per hour.
(c) In accordance with Rule 0400-20-08-.15,
the licensee or registrant shall maintain records of calibrations, dates and
results thereof for inspection by the Division for 3 years after the date of
testing, repairing, tagging, opening, modifying and replacing of sealed
(a) The replacement of any sealed
source fastened to or contained in a radiographic exposure device and leak
testing, repair, tagging, opening or any other modification of any sealed
source shall be performed only by persons specifically authorized to do so by
the Division, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or any Agreement
(b) Each sealed source shall
be tested for leakage at intervals not to exceed 6 months. In the absence of a
certificate from a transferor that a test has been made within the 6 months
prior to the transfer, the sealed source shall not be put into use until
(c) The leak test shall be
capable of detecting the presence of 0.005 microcurie of removable
contamination on the sealed source. An acceptable leak test for sealed sources
in the possession of a radiography licensee would be to test at the nearest
accessible point to the sealed source storage position, or other appropriate
measuring point, by a procedure to be approved pursuant to subparagraph (6)(e)
of Rule 0400-20-10-.13. Records of leak test results shall identify each sealed
source and its container by serial number and shall be kept in units of
microcuries or disintegrations per minute (dpm) and maintained for inspection
by the Division for 3 years after the test is made.
(d) Any test conducted pursuant to
subparagraphs (b) and (c) of this paragraph that reveals the presence of 0.005
microcurie or more of removable radioactive material shall be considered
evidence that the sealed source is leaking. The licensee shall immediately
withdraw the equipment involved from use and shall cause it to be
decontaminated and repaired or to be disposed of in accordance with Division
regulations. Two copies of a report shall be filed within 5 days after
obtaining results of the test with the Division at the address provided in Rule
0400-20-04-.07, describing the equipment involved, the test results and the
corrective action taken.
sealed source that is not fastened to or contained in a radiographic exposure
device shall have permanently attached to it a durable tag at least 1 inch
(2.54 centimeters ) square bearing the conventional radiation caution symbol,
as described in Chapter 0400-20-05, and at least the instructions:
" DANGER - RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL - DO NOT HANDLE - NOTIFY
CIVIL AUTHORITIES IF FOUND"
Each exposure device using depleted
uranium (DU) shielding and an 'S' tube configuration shall be tested for DU
contamination at intervals not to exceed 12 months. The analysis shall be
capable of detecting the presence of 185 Bq (0.005 microcuries) of radioactive
material on the test sample and shall be performed by a person specifically
authorized by the Division, the U.S. NRC or an Agreement State to perform the
1. Should such testing reveal the
presence of 185 Bq (0.005 microcuries) or more of removable DU contamination,
the exposure device shall be removed from use until an evaluation of the wear
on the S-tube has been made. Should the evaluation reveal that the S-tube is
worn through, the device may not be used again.
2. DU shielded devices do not have to be
tested for DU contamination while in storage and not in use. Before using or
transferring such a device however, the device shall be tested for DU
contamination if the interval of storage exceeded 12 months.
Each licensee or registrant shall conduct a quarterly
physical inventory to account for all sources of radiation received and
possessed by him. The records of the inventories shall be maintained for 3
years from the date of the inventory for inspection by the Division. The
records shall include the quantities and kinds of radioactive material,
location of all sources of radiation, and the date of inventory. Each sealed
source and each radiographic exposure device shall be identified by serial
Each licensee or registrant shall
maintain, at the address specified in the license or registration, current
utilization logs showing for each source of radiation the following
1. A description (make, model and
serial number) of each radiographic exposure device or transport or storage
container in which the sealed source is located;
2. The identity and signature of the
radiographer to whom assigned; and
3. The plant or site where used and dates of
use, including the dates removed and returned to storage.
(b) In accordance with paragraph (7) Rule
0400-20-08-.04, the licensee shall retain the logs required by subparagraph (a)
of this paragraph for inspection by the Division for 3 years after the log is
(c) Locations (plant or site)
where used and dates of use.
Inspection and maintenance of
radiographic exposure devices, source changers, transport and storage
containers, associated equipment and survey instruments.
(a) The licensee shall perform visual and
operability checks on survey meters, radiographic exposure devices, transport
and storage containers, associated equipment and source changers prior to use
each day the equipment is used to ensure that the equipment is in good working
condition, that the sources are adequately shielded and that required labeling
is present. Survey instrument operability shall be performed using check
sources or other appropriate means. If equipment problems are found, the
equipment shall be removed from service until repaired.
The licensee shall have written
1. Inspection and routine
maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, source changers, associated
equipment, transport and storage containers at intervals not to exceed 3
months, or before the first use thereafter, to assure proper functioning of
components important to safety. If equipment problems are found, the equipment
shall be removed from service until repaired.
2. Inspection and maintenance necessary to
maintain the Type B packaging used to transport radioactive materials. The
inspection and maintenance program shall include procedures to assure that Type
B packages are shipped and maintained in accordance with the certificate of
compliance or other approval.
Permanent radiographic installations.
(a) Permanent radiographic installations
having high radiation area entrance controls of the types described in Chapter
0400-20-05 shall also meet the special requirements in subparagraphs (b) and
(c) of this paragraph.
entrance that is used for personnel access to the high radiation area in a
permanent radiographic installation shall have both visible and audible warning
signals to warn of the presence of radiation. The visible signal shall be
actuated by radiation whenever the source is exposed or a radiation area is
generated. The audible signal shall be actuated when an attempt is made to
enter the installation while the source is exposed or a radiation area is
(c) The alarm system
shall be tested for proper operation with a radiation source each day before
the installation is used for radiographic operations. The test shall include a
check of both the visible and audible signals. Entrance control devices that
reduce the radiation level upon entry shall be tested monthly. If an entrance
control device or an alarm is operating improperly, it shall be immediately
labeled as defective and repaired within 7 calendar days. The facility may
continue to be used during this seven-day period, provided the licensee
implements the continuous surveillance requirements of paragraph (1) of Rule
0400-20-08-.06 and uses an alarming ratemeter. The licensee or registrant shall
retain records of these tests for 3 years for inspection by the
Performance requirements for sealed source radiographic exposure devices and
associated equipment. Equipment utilizing radioactive material used in
industrial radiographic operations shall meet the following minimum criteria:
(a) Each radiographic exposure device and all
associated equipment shall meet the requirements specified in American National
Standard N432-1980 "Radiological Safety for the Design and Construction of
Apparatus for Gamma Radiography," (published as NBS Handbook 136, issued
January 1981). This publication may be purchased from the American National
Standards Institute, Inc., 25 West 43rd Street, New
York, New York 10036; Telephone: (212) 642-4900. An applicant or licensee may
submit engineering analyses to demonstrate the applicability of previously
performed testing on similar individual radiography equipment components. Upon
review, the Division may find this an acceptable alternative to actual testing
of the component under the above referenced standard.
In addition to the requirements specified
in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, the following requirements apply to
radiographic exposure devices, source changers, source assemblies and sealed
The licensee shall ensure that
each radiographic exposure device has attached to it a durable, legible,
clearly visible label bearing the:
Chemical symbol and mass number of the radionuclide in the device;
(ii) Activity and the date on which this
activity was last measured;
Model (or product code) and serial number of the sealed source;
(iv) Manufacturer's identity of the sealed
(v) Licensee's name,
address and telephone number.
Radiographic exposure devices intended for
use as Type B transport containers shall meet the applicable requirements of 10
CFR Part 71
3. Modification of
radiographic exposure devices, source changers, and source assemblies and
associated equipment is prohibited, unless the design of any replacement
component, including source holder, source assembly, controls or guide tubes
would not compromise the design safety features of the system.
In addition to the
requirements specified in subparagraphs (a) and (b) of this paragraph, the
following requirements apply to radiographic exposure devices, source
assemblies and associated equipment that allow the source to be moved out of
the device for radiographic operations or to source changers.
1. The coupling between the source assembly
and the control cable shall be designed in such a manner that the source
assembly will not become disconnected if cranked outside the guide tube. The
coupling shall be such that it cannot be unintentionally disconnected under
normal and reasonably foreseeable abnormal conditions.
2. The device shall automatically secure the
source assembly when it is cranked back into the fully shielded position within
the device. This securing system may only be released by means of a deliberate
operation on the exposure device.
3. The outlet fittings, lock box and drive
cable fittings on each radiographic exposure device shall be equipped with
safety plugs or covers, which shall be installed during storage and
transportation to protect the source assembly from water, mud, sand or other
Each sealed source or source assembly
shall have attached to it or engraved on it, a durable, legible, visible label
with the words:
" CAUTION (or "DANGER")-RADIOACTIVE.''
(ii) The label may not interfere with the
safe operation of the exposure device or associated equipment.
5. The guide tube shall be able to
withstand a crushing test that closely approximates the crushing forces that
are likely to be encountered during use, and be able to withstand a kinking
resistance test that closely approximates the kinking forces that are likely to
be encountered during use.
tubes shall be used when moving the source out of the device.
7. An exposure head or similar device
designed to prevent the source assembly from passing out of the end of the
guide tube shall be attached to the outermost end of the guide tube during
industrial radiography operations.
8. The guide tube exposure head connection
shall be able to withstand the tensile test for control units specified in ANSI
9. Source changers shall
provide a system for ensuring that the source will not be accidentally
withdrawn from the changer when connecting or disconnecting the drive cable to
or from a source assembly.
(d) All newly manufactured radiographic
exposure devices and associated equipment acquired by licensees after January
10, 1992, shall comply with the requirements of this paragraph.
(e) All radiographic exposure devices and
associated equipment in use after January 10, 1996, shall comply with the
requirements of this paragraph.
Notwithstanding subparagraph (10)(a) of this rule, equipment used in industrial
radiographic operations need not comply with §8.9.2(c) of the Endurance
Test in American National Standards Institute N432-1980, if the prototype
equipment has been tested using a torque value representative of the torque
that an individual using the radiography equipment can realistically exert on
the lever or crankshaft of the drive mechanism.
Labeling, storage and transportation.
The licensee may not use a source changer
or a container to store licensed material unless the source changer or the
storage container has securely attached to it a durable, legible and clearly
visible label bearing the standard trefoil radiation caution symbol in
conventional colors, i.e., magenta, purple or black on a yellow background,
having a minimum diameter of 25 mm, and the wording:
CAUTION (or "DANGER")
NOTIFY CIVIL AUTHORITIES (or "NAME OF
shall not transport licensed material unless the material is packaged and the
package is labeled, marked and accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in
accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR Part 71
(c) Locked radiographic exposure devices and
storage containers shall be physically secured to prevent tampering or removal
by unauthorized personnel. The licensee shall store licensed material in a
manner that will minimize danger from explosion or fire.
(d) The licensee shall lock and physically
secure the transport package containing licensed material in the transporting
vehicle to prevent accidental loss, tampering or unauthorized removal of the
licensed material from the vehicle.