Utah Admin. Code R317-3-11 - Use, Land Application and Alternate Methods for Disposal of Treated Wastewater Effluents

11.1. General. Design requirements for effluent disposal or water reuse of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents shall comply with the requirements of this section. Administrative and approval requirements for these land application systems are found in R317-13 and R317-14 for water reuse and effluent disposal, respectively. Land application of effluent from industrial wastewater treatment plants shall comply with the requirements of R317-1-5.
11.2 Effluent Criteria. Land application of treated effluents is permitted following treatment if standards are met as defined in this section.
11.3 Submittal of Project Plan. If a person intends to use or provide for the use of treated domestic wastewater directly for any purpose, except on the treatment plant site as described in R317-1-4.2, a Project Plan must be submitted to and approved by the Director. A copy of the plan must also be submitted to the local health department. Any needed construction of wastewater treatment and delivery systems would also be covered by a construction permit as required in section R317-1-2.2. The plan must contain the following information. At least items A, B, D and E should be provided before construction begins. All items must be provided before any water deliveries are made.
A. A description of the quantity, quality, and use of the treated wastewater to be delivered, the location of the site, an assessment of the direct hydrologic effects of the action, and how the requirements of this rule would be met. A nutrient management and agronomic uptake analysis may be required to document the proposed management of all nutrients.
B. A description of public notification and participation in the development of the Project Plan may be required.
C. An operation and management plan to include:
1. A copy of the contract with the user, if other than the treatment entity.
2. A labeling and separation plan for the prevention of cross connections between treated effluent distribution lines and potable water lines. Guidance for distribution systems is available from the Division of Water Quality.
3. Schedules for routine maintenance.
4. A contingency plan for system failure or upsets.
D. If the water will be delivered to other entities for transmission, distribution and/or use, a copy of the contract covering how the requirements of this rule will be met.
E. Requirements for ground water discharge permits, underground injection control (U.I.C.) permits, surface water discharge permits, total maximum daily load (TMDL) or nutrient loading considerations, if required, shall be determined in accordance with R317-1, R317-2, R317-6, R317-7, R317-8.
11.4 Use of Treated Domestic Wastewater Effluent Where Human Exposure is Likely (Type I)
A. Uses Allowed
1. Residential irrigation, including landscape irrigation at individual houses.
2. Urban uses, which includes non-residential landscape irrigation, golf course irrigation, toilet flushing, fire protection, and other uses with similar potential for human exposure. Internal building uses of treated effluent will not be allowed in individual, wholly-owned residences; and are only permitted in situations where maintenance access to the building's utilities is strictly controlled and limited only to the services of a professional plumbing entity. Projects involving effluent reuse within a building must be approved by the local building code official.
3. Irrigation of food crops where the applied reuse water is likely to have direct contact with the edible part. Type I water is required for all spray irrigation of food crops.
4. Irrigation of pasture for milking animals.
5. Impoundments of wastewater where direct human contact is likely to occur.
6. All Type II uses listed in 11.5.A below.
B. Required Treatment Processes
1.
a. Treatment processes that are expected to produce effluent in which both the BOD and total suspended solids concentrations do not exceed secondary quality effluent limits as defined in R317-1-3.2.
b. Filtration, which includes passing the wastewater through filter media such as sand and/or anthracite, approved membrane processes or other approved filtration processes.
c. Disinfection to destroy, inactivate, or remove pathogenic microorganisms by chemical, physical, or biological means. Disinfection may be accomplished by chlorination, ozonation, or other chemical disinfectants, UV radiation, or other approved processes.
2. Other approved treatment processes in which any of the unit process functions of secondary treatment, filtration and disinfection may be combined, but still achieve the same secondary quality effluent limits as required above.
C. Water Quality Limits. The quality of treated effluent before use must meet the following standards. Testing methods and procedures shall be performed according to test procedures approved under R317-2-10, or as otherwise approved by the Director. Water quality sampling requirements specified in this section shall apply to the point of compliance at all times during use of treated effluent.
1. The monthly arithmetic mean of BOD shall not exceed 10 mg/l as determined by composite sampling conducted once per week. Composite samples shall be comprised of at least six flow proportionate samples taken over a 24- hour period.
2. The daily arithmetic mean turbidity shall not exceed 2 NTU, and turbidity shall not exceed 5 NTU at any time. Turbidity shall be measured continuously. The turbidity standard shall be met prior to disinfection. If the turbidity standard cannot be met, but it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Director that there exists a consistent correlation between turbidity and the total suspended solids, then an alternate turbidity standard may be established. This will allow continuous turbidity monitoring for quality control while maintaining the intent of the turbidity standard, which is to have 5 mg/l total suspended solids or less to assure adequate disinfection.
3. The weekly median E. coli concentration shall be none detected, as determined from daily grab samples, and no sample shall exceed 9 organisms/100 ml.
4. The total residual chlorine shall be measured continuously and shall at no time be less than 1.0 mg/l after 30 minutes contact time at peak flow. If an alternative disinfection process is used, it must be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Director that the alternative process is comparable to that achieved by chlorination with a 1 mg/l residual after 30 minutes contact time. If the effectiveness cannot be related to chlorination, then the effectiveness of the alternative disinfection process must be demonstrated by testing for pathogen destruction as determined by the Director. A 1 mg/l total chlorine residual is recommended after disinfection and before the treated effluent goes into the distribution system.
5. The pH as determined by daily grab samples or continuous monitoring shall be between 6 and 9.
D. Other Requirements
1. An alternative disposal option or diversion to storage must be automatically activated if turbidity exceeds the maximum instantaneous limit for more than 5 minutes, or chlorine residual drops below the instantaneous required value for more than 5 minutes, where chlorine disinfection is used.
2. Any irrigation must be at least 50 feet from any potable water well. Impoundments of treated effluent, if not sealed, must be at least 500 feet from any potable water well. The use should not result in a surface runoff and must not result in the creation of an unhealthy or nuisance condition, as determined by the local health department.
3. For residential landscape irrigation at individual homes, additional quality control restrictions may be required by the Director. Proposals for such uses should also be submitted to the local health authority to determine any conditions they may require. When secondary residential irrigation systems are planned utilizing treated effluent in new subdivisions, it is recommended that a notification of the type of irrigation system and possible sources of irrigation waters be made on the deed for the property. Such notification could be made during the plat approval process.
11.5 Use of Treated Domestic Wastewater Effluent Where Human Exposure is Unlikely (Type II)
A. Uses Allowed
1. Irrigation of sod farms, silviculture, limited access highway rights of way, and other areas where human access is restricted or unlikely to occur.
2. Irrigation of food crops where the applied treated effluent is not likely to have direct contact with the edible part, whether the food will be processed or not (spray irrigation not allowed).
3. Irrigation of animal feed crops other than pasture used for milking animals.
4. Impoundments of wastewater where direct human contact is not allowed or is unlikely to occur.
5. Cooling water. Use for cooling towers which produce aerosols in populated areas may have special restrictions imposed.
6. Soil compaction or dust control in construction areas.
B. Required Treatment Processes
1. Treatment processes that are expected to produce effluent in which both the BOD and total suspended solids concentrations do not exceed secondary quality effluent limits as defined in R317-1-3.2.
2. Disinfection to destroy, inactivate, or remove pathogenic microorganisms by chemical, physical, or biological means. Disinfection may be accomplished by chlorination, ozonation, or other chemical disinfectants, UV radiation, or other approved processes.
C. Water Quality Limits. The quality of effluent before use must meet the following standards. Testing methods and procedures shall be performed according to test procedures approved under R317-2-10, or as otherwise approved by the Director. Water quality sampling requirements specified in this section shall apply to the point of compliance at all times during use of treated effluent.
1. The monthly arithmetic mean of BOD shall not exceed 25 mg/l as determined by composite sampling conducted once per week. Composite samples shall be comprised of at least six flow proportionate samples taken over a 24- hour period.
2. The monthly arithmetic mean total suspended solids concentration shall not exceed 25 mg/l as determined by daily composite sampling. The weekly mean total suspended solids concentration shall not exceed 35 mg/l. Properly calibrated, continuous monitoring of turbidity may be substituted for the suspended solids testing.
3. The weekly median E. coli concentration shall not exceed 126 organisms/100 ml, as determined from daily grab samples, and no sample shall exceed 500 organisms/100 ml.
4. The pH as determined by daily grab samples or continuous monitoring shall be between 6 and 9.
5. At the discretion of the Director, the sampling frequency to determine compliance with water quality limits for effluent from lagoon systems used to irrigate agricultural crops, may be reduced to monthly grab sampling for BOD, and weekly grab sampling for E. coli, TSS and pH. The Director may also allow a relaxation of lagoon effluent BOD and suspended solids concentrations, in accordance with R317-1-3.2.
D. Other Requirements
1. An alternative disposal option or diversion to storage must be available in case quality requirements are not met.
2. Any irrigation must be at least 300 feet from any potable water well. Spray irrigation must be at least 100 feet from areas intended for public access. This distance may be reduced or increased by the Director, based on the type of spray irrigation equipment used and other factors. Impoundments of treated effluent, if not sealed, must be at least 500 feet from any potable water well. The use should not result in a surface runoff and must not result in the creation of an unhealthy or nuisance condition, as determined by the local health department.
3. Public access to effluent storage and irrigation or disposal sites shall be restricted by a stock- tight fence or other comparable means which shall be posted and controlled to exclude the public.
11.6 Records. Records of volume and quality of treated wastewater used shall be maintained and submitted monthly in accordance with R317-1-2.7. If monthly operating reports are already being submitted to the Division of Water Quality, the data on treated effluent delivered may be submitted on the same form.
11.7 Other Uses of Effluents. Proposed uses of effluents not identified above, including industrial uses, shall be considered for approval by the Director based on a case-specific analysis of human health and environmental concerns.
11.8 Treated Effluent Water Distribution Systems. Where treated effluent is to be provided by pressure pipeline, unless contained in surface pipes wholly on private property and for agricultural purposes, the following requirements will apply. The requirements will apply to all new systems and it is recommended that the accessible portions of existing reuse water distribution systems be retrofitted to comply with these rules. Requirements for irrigation systems proposed for conversion from use of secondary water to use with treated effluent will be considered on an individual basis considering protection of public health and the environment. Any person or agency that is constructing all or part of the distribution system must obtain a construction permit from the Director prior to beginning construction.
A. Distribution Lines
1. Minimum Separation.
a. Horizontal Separation. Treated effluent main distribution lines parallel to potable (culinary) water lines should be installed in separate trenches. Treated effluent main distribution lines parallel to sanitary sewer lines shall be installed at least ten feet horizontally from the sanitary sewer line if the sanitary sewer line is located above the treated effluent main and three feet horizontally from the sanitary sewer line if the sanitary sewer line is located below the reuse water main.
b. Vertical Separation. At crossings of treated effluent main distribution lines with potable water lines and sanitary sewer lines the order of the lines from lowest in elevation to highest should be; sanitary sewer line, treated effluent line, and potable water line. A minimum 18 inches vertical separation between the treated effluent line and sewer line shall be provided as measured from outside of pipe to outside of pipe. The crossings shall be arranged so that the reuse water line joints will be equidistant and as far as possible from the water line joints and the sewer line joints. If the treated effluent line must cross above the potable water line, the vertical separation should be a minimum 18 inches. If the treated effluent line must cross below the sanitary sewer line, the vertical separation shall be a minimum 18 inches and the treated effluent line shall be encased in a continuous pipe sleeve to a distance on each side of the crossing equal to the depth of the treated effluent line from the ground surface.
c. Special Provisions. Where the horizontal and/or vertical separation as required above cannot be maintained, special construction requirements shall be provided in accordance with requirements in this Rule for protection of potable water lines and treated effluent lines. Existing pressure lines carrying treated effluent shall not be required to meet these requirements.
2. Depth of Installation. To provide protection of the installed pipeline, treated effluent lines should be installed with a minimum depth of bury of three feet.
3. Treated Effluent Pipe Identification.
a. General. All new buried pipe within the public domain, including service lines, valves, and other appurtenances, shall be colored purple, Pantone 522 or equivalent. If fading or discoloration of the purple pipe is experienced during construction, identification tape is recommended. A clearly labeled tracer location tape or wire shall be placed two feet above the top of treated effluent lines less than or equal to 24 inch (61 centimeters) in diameter, along its entire buried length.
b. Identification Tape. If identification tape is installed along with the purple pipe, it shall be prepared with white or black printing on a purple field, color Pantone 512 or equivalent, having the words, "Caution: Treated Wastewater-Do Not Drink". The overall width of the tape shall be at least three inches. Identification tape shall be installed 12 inches above the transmission pipe longitudinally and shall be centered.
4. Conversion of existing water lines. Existing water lines that are being converted to use with treated effluent shall first be accurately located and comply with leak test standards in accordance with AWWA Standard C- 600 and in coordination with regulatory agencies. The pipeline must be physically disconnected from any potable water lines and brought into compliance with current State cross connection rules and requirements (R309-102-5 ), and must meet minimum separation requirements in section 4.8.A.1 of this rule above. If the existing lines meet approval of the water supplier and the Division, the lines shall be approved for treated effluent distribution. If regulatory compliance of the system (accurate location and verification of no cross connections) cannot be verified with record drawings, televising, or otherwise, the lines shall be uncovered, inspected, and identified prior to use. All accessible portions of the system must be retrofitted to meet the requirements of this rule.
5. Valve Boxes and Other Surface Identification. All valve covers shall be of non-interchangeable shape with potable water covers, and shall have an inscription cast on the top surface stating "Reclaimed Water" or "Treated Wastewater". Valve boxes shall meet AWWA standards. All above ground facilities shall be consistently color coded (purple, Pantone 512 or equivalent color) and marked to differentiate treated effluent facilities from potable water facilities.
6. Blow-off Assemblies. If either an in-line type or end-of-line type blow-off or drain assembly is installed in the system, the Division of Water Quality shall be consulted on acceptable discharge or runoff locations.
7. Line Drains. All distribution pipes and sprinklers must have the capability to be completely drained.
8. Flow Measurement. Main distribution headers must have flow measurement devices and pressure gages. All land applied flow must be totalized.
B. Storage. If storage or impoundment of treated effluent is provided, the following requirements apply:
1. Fencing. For Type I effluent, no fencing is required by this rule, but may be required by local laws or ordinances. For Type II effluent, see R317-3-11.5.D.2 above.
2. Identification. All storage facilities shall be identified by signs prepared according to the requirements of Section 11.8.D.6 below. Signs shall be posted on the surrounding fence at minimum 500 foot intervals and at the entrance of each facility. If there is no fence, signs shall be located as a minimum on each side of the facility or at minimum 250 foot intervals or at all accessible points.
C. Pumping Facilities.
1. Marking. All exposed and above ground piping, fittings, pumps, valves, etc., shall be painted purple, Pantone 512 or equivalent color. In addition, all piping shall be identified using an accepted means of labeling reading "Caution: Treated Wastewater - Do Not Drink." In a fenced pump station area, signs shall be posted on the fence on all sides.
2. Sealing Water. Any potable water used as seal water for reuse water pumps seals shall be protected from backflow with a reduced pressure principle device.
D. Other Requirements.
1. Backflow Protection. In no case shall a connection be made between the potable and treated effluent system. If it is necessary to put potable water into the treated effluent distribution system, an approved air gap must be provided to protect the potable water system. A reduced pressure principle device may be used only when approved by the Director, the local health department, and the potable water supplier.
2. Drinking Fountains. Drinking fountains and other public facilities shall be placed out of any spray irrigation area in which reuse water is used, or shall be otherwise protected from contact with the treated effluent. Exterior drinking fountains and other public facilities shall be shown and called out on the construction plans. If no exterior drinking fountains, picnic tables, food establishments, or other public facilities are present in the design area, then it shall be specifically stated on the plans that none are to exist.
3. Hose Bibs. Hose bibs on treated effluent systems in public areas and at individual residences are permitted for Type I water, with the following restrictions:
a. All exposed hose bib piping must be painted purple, Pantone 512 or equivalent color and,
b. Hose bibs shall be fitted with a valve having a non-permanently attachable operating handle. To discourage inappropriate casual use, it is recommended that each hose bib be posted with a warning label or sign, as detailed in R317 -3.11.8.D.5, and/or placed in a lockable subsurface valve box in accordance with R317-3-11.8.A.5.

In public, non-residential areas, replacement of hose bibs with quick couplers is recommended.

4. Equipment and Facilities. To ensure the protection of public health, any equipment or facilities such as tanks, temporary piping or valves, and portable pumps which have been used for conveying treated effluent may not be reused for conveying potable water.
5. Warning Labels. Warning labels shall be installed on designated facilities such as, but not limited to, controller panels and washdown or blow-off hydrants on water trucks, and temporary construction services. The labels shall indicate the system contains treated wastewater that is unsafe to drink.
6. Warning signs. Where treated effluent is stored or impounded, or used for irrigation in public areas, warning signs shall be installed and contain, as a minimum, 1/2 inch purple letters (Pantone 512 or equivalent color) on a white or other high contrast background notifying the public that the water is unsafe to drink. Signs may also have a purple background with white or other high contrast lettering. Warning signs and labels shall read, "Warning: Treated Wastewater - Do Not Drink". The signs shall include the international symbol for Do Not Drink.
7. Public Education Program. Where treated effluent is used in individual residential landscape or public landscape area irrigation systems, a public education program must be implemented prior to initial operation of the program and, as necessary, during operation of the system.

Notes

Utah Admin. Code R317-3-11

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