(a) Disposition After Notice. Any person who commits criminal contempt may be punished for that contempt after prosecution on notice.
(1) Notice. The court must give the person notice in open court, in an order to show cause, or in an arrest order. The notice must:
(A) state the time and place of the trial;
(B) allow the defendant a reasonable time to prepare a defense; and
(C) state the essential facts constituting the charged criminal contempt and describe it as such.
(2) Appointing a Prosecutor. The court must request that the contempt be prosecuted by an attorney for the government, unless the interest of justice requires the appointment of another attorney. If the government declines the request, the court must appoint another attorney to prosecute the contempt.
(3) Trial and Disposition. A person being prosecuted for criminal contempt is entitled to a jury trial in any case in which federal law so provides and must be released or detained as Rule 46 provides. If the criminal contempt involves disrespect toward or criticism of a judge, that judge is disqualified from presiding at the contempt trial or hearing unless the defendant consents. Upon a finding or verdict of guilty, the court must impose the punishment.
(b) Summary Disposition. Notwithstanding any other provision of these rules, the court (other than a magistrate judge) may summarily punish a person who commits criminal contempt in its presence if the judge saw or heard the contemptuous conduct and so certifies; a magistrate judge may summarily punish a person as provided in 28 U.S.C. §636(e). The contempt order must recite the facts, be signed by the judge, and be filed with the clerk.
(As amended Mar. 9, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987; Apr. 29, 2002, eff. Dec. 1, 2002.)
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1944
The rule-making power of the Supreme Court with respect to criminal proceedings was extended to proceedings to punish for criminal contempt of court by the Act of November 21, 1941 (55 Stat. 779), 18 U.S.C. 689.
Note to Subdivision (a). This rule is substantially a restatement of existing law, Ex parte Terry, 128 U.S. 289; Cooke v. United States, 267 U.S. 517, 534.
Note to Subdivision (b). 1. This rule is substantially a restatement of the procedure prescribed in 28 U.S.C. 386 –390 [now 18 U.S.C. 401, 402, 3285, 3691], and 29 U.S.C. 111 [now 18 U.S.C. 3692 ].
2. The requirement in the second sentence that the notice shall describe the criminal contempt as such is intended to obviate the frequent confusion between criminal and civil contempt proceedings and follows the suggestion made in McCann v. New York Stock Exchange, 80 F.2d 211 (C.C.A. 2d). See also Nye v. United States, 313 U.S. 33, 42 –43.
3. The fourth sentence relating to trial by jury preserves the right to a trial by jury in those contempt cases in which it is granted by statute, but does not enlarge the right or extend it to additional cases. The respondent in a contempt proceeding may demand a trial by jury as of right if the proceeding is brought under the Act of March 23, 1932, c. 90, sec. 11, 47 Stat. 72, 29 U.S.C. 111 [now 18 U.S.C. 3692 ] (Norris-La Guardia Act), or the Act of October 15, 1914, c. 323, sec. 22, 38 Stat. 738, 28 U.S.C. 387 (Clayton Act).
4. The provision in the sixth sentence disqualifying the judge affected by the contempt if the charge involves disrespect to or criticism of him, is based, in part, on 29 U.S.C. former §112 (Contempts; demand for retirement of judge sitting in proceeding) and the observations of Chief Justice Taft in Cooke v. United States, 267 U.S. 517, 539, 45 S.Ct. 390, 69 L.Ed. 767.
5. Among the statutory provisions defining criminal contempts are the following:
U.S.C., Title 7:
Section 499m (Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; investigation of complaints; procedure; penalties; etc.—(c) Disobedience to subpenas; remedy; contempt)
U.S.C., Title 9:
Section 7 (Witnesses before arbitrators; fees, compelling attendance)
U.S.C., Title 11:
Section 69 [former] (Referees; contempts before)
U.S.C., Title 15:
Section 49 (Federal Trade Commission; documentary evidence; depositions; witnesses)
Section 78u (Regulation of Securities Exchanges; investigation; injunctions and prosecution of offenses)
Section 100 (Trademarks; destruction of infringing labels; service of injunction, and proceedings for enforcement)
Section 155 (China Trade Act; authority of registrar in obtaining evidence)
U.S.C., Title 17:
Section 36 [now 502] (Injunctions; service and enforcement)
U.S.C., Title 19:
Section 1333 (Tariff Commission; testimony and production of papers—(b) Witnesses and evidence)
U.S.C., Title 22:
Section 270f (International Bureaus; Congresses, etc.; perjury; contempts; penalties)
U.S.C., Title 28:
Section 385 [now 459; 18 U.S.C. 401 ] (Administration of oaths; contempts)
Section 386 [now 18 U.S.C. 402, 3691] (Contempts; when constituting also criminal offense)
Section 387 [now 18 U.S.C. 402 ] (Same; procedure; bail; attachment; trial; punishment) (Clayton Act; jury trial; section)
Section 388 [former] (Same; review of conviction)
Section 389 [now 18 U.S.C. 402, 3691] (Same; not specifically enumerated)
Section 390 [now 18 U.S.C. 3285 ] (Same; limitations)
Section 390a [now 18 U.S.C. 402 ] (“Person” or “persons” defined)
Section 648 [now Rule 17(f), FRCP, 18 U.S.C., Appendix; Rule 45(d), FRCP, 28 U.S.C., Appendix] (Depositions under dedimus potestatem; witnesses; when required to attend)
Section 703 [former] (Punishment of witness for contempt)
Section 714 [now 1784] (Failure of witness to obey subpena; order to show cause in contempt proceedings)
Section 715 [now 1784] (Direction in order to show cause for seizure of property of witness in contempt)
Section 716 [now 1784] (Service of order to show cause)
Section 717 [now 1784] (Hearing on order to show cause; judgment; satisfaction)
Section 750 [now 2405] (Garnishees in suits by United States against a corporation; garnishee failing to appear)
U.S.C., Title 29:
Section 111 [now 18 U.S.C. 3692 ] (Contempts; speedy and public trial; jury) (Norris-La Guardia Act)
Section 112 [now Rule 42, FRCP, 18 U.S.C., Appendix] (Contempts; demands for retirement of judge sitting in proceeding)
Section 160 (Prevention of unfair labor practices—(h) Jurisdiction of courts unaffected by limitations prescribed in sections 101–115 of Title 29)
Section 161 (Investigatory powers of Board—(2) Court aid in compelling production of evidence and attendance of witnesses)
Section 209 (Fair Labor Standards Act; attendance of witnesses)
U.S.C., Title 33:
Section 927 (Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act; powers of deputy commissioner)
U.S.C., Title 35:
Section 56 [now 24] (Failing to attend or testify)
U.S.C., Title 47:
Section 409 (Federal Communications Commission; hearing; subpenas; oaths; witnesses; production of books and papers; contempts; depositions; penalties)
U.S.C., Title 48:
Section 1345a (Canal Zone; general jurisdiction of district court; issue of process at request of officials; witnesses; contempt)
U.S.C., Title 49:
Section 12 [see 721(c)(2), 13301(c)(2)] (Interstate Commerce Commission; authority and duties of commission; witnesses; depositions—(3) Compelling attendance and testimony of witnesses, etc.)
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure:
Rule 45 (Subpoena) subdivision (f) (Contempt)
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1987 Amendment
The amendments are technical. No substantive change is intended.
Committee Notes on Rules—2002 Amendment
The language of Rule 42 has been amended as part of the general restyling of the Criminal Rules to make them more easily understood and to make style and terminology consistent throughout the rules. These changes are intended to be stylistic only, except as noted below.
The revised rule is intended to more clearly set out the procedures for conducting a criminal contempt proceeding. The current rule implicitly recognizes that an attorney for the government may be involved in the prosecution of such cases. Revised Rule 42(a)(2) now explicitly addresses the appointment of a “prosecutor” and adopts language to reflect the holding in Young v. United States ex rel. Vuitton, 481 U.S. 787 (1987). In that case the Supreme Court indicated that ordinarily the court should request that an attorney for the government prosecute the contempt; only if that request is denied, should the court appoint a private prosecutor. The rule envisions that a disinterested counsel should be appointed to prosecute the contempt.
Rule 42(b) has been amended to make it clear that a court may summarily punish a person for committing contempt in the court's presence without regard to whether other rules, such as Rule 32 (sentencing procedures), might otherwise apply. See, e.g., United States v. Martin-Trigona, 759 F.2d 1017 (2d Cir. 1985). Further, Rule 42(b) has been amended to recognize the contempt powers of a court (other than a magistrate judge) and a magistrate judge.
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