Rule 54. Judgments; Costs
(a) Definition; Form. “Judgment” as used in these rules includes a decree and any order from which an appeal lies. A judgment shall not contain a recital of pleadings, the report of a master, or the record of prior proceedings.
(b) Judgment Upon Multiple Claims or Involving Multiple Parties. When more than one claim for relief is presented in an action, whether as a claim, counterclaim, or third-party claim, or when multiple parties are involved, the court may direct the entry of a final judgment as to one or more but fewer than all of the claims or parties only upon an express determination that there is no just reason for delay and upon an express direction for the entry of judgment. In the absence of such determination and direction, any order or other form of decision, however designated, which adjudicates fewer than all the claims or the rights and liabilities of fewer than all the parties shall not terminate the action as to any of the claims or parties, and the order or other form of decision is subject to revision at any time before the entry of judgment adjudicating all the claims and the rights and liabilities of all the parties.
(c) Demand for Judgment. A judgment by default shall not be different in kind from or exceed in amount that prayed for in the demand for judgment. Except as to a party against whom a judgment is entered by default, every final judgment shall grant the relief to which the party in whose favor it is rendered is entitled, even if the party has not demanded such relief in the party’s pleadings.
(d) Costs; Attorneys’ Fees.
(1) Costs Other than Attorneys’ Fees. Costs other than attorneys’ fees may be awarded to the prevailing party to the extent permitted by law. See 28 U.S.C. § 2412 (a).
(A) Filing Bill of Costs. A prevailing party may request the clerk to tax allowable costs by filing a Bill of Costs as set forth in the Appendix of Forms (Form 4) within 30 days after the date of final judgment, as defined in 28 U.S.C. § 2412 (d)(2)(G). In any case where any costs other than the fee for filing the action are being requested, the bill of costs shall be supported by affidavit and accompanied by a memorandum setting forth the grounds and authorities supporting the request. Any vouchers, receipts or invoices supporting the cost being requested shall be attached as exhibits.
(B) Objections to Bill of Costs.
(i) An adverse party may object to the Bill of Costs or to any item claimed therein by filing objections within 28 days after the service of the Bill of Costs. Within 7 days after service of the objections, the prevailing party may file a reply. Unless a conference is scheduled by the clerk, the taxation of costs or any disallowance will be made by the clerk on the record.
(C) Costs in Settlements. The clerk will not tax costs on any action terminated by settlement wherein the judgment is entered pursuant to RCFC 68 or is dismissed pursuant to RCFC 41(a). Settlement agreements must resolve any issue relating to costs. In the absence of special agreement, parties will bear their own costs.
(2) Attorneys’ Fees.
(A) Claims for attorneys’ fees and related nontaxable expenses shall be made by motion unless the substantive law governing the action provides for the recovery of such fees as an element of damages to be proved at trial. See Appendix of Forms, Form 5.
(B) Unless otherwise provided by statute or order of the court, the motion must be filed no later than 30 days after the date of final judgment, as defined in 28 U.S.C. § 2412 (d)(2)(G); must specify the judgment and the statute, rule, or other grounds entitling the moving party to the award; and must state the amount sought. If directed by the court, the motion shall also disclose the terms of any agreement with respect to fees to be paid for the services for which claim is made.
(C) The court may determine issues of liability for fees before receiving submissions bearing on issues of evaluation of services for which liability is imposed by the court. The court shall find the facts and state its conclusions of law as provided in RCFC 52(a).
(D) The responding party shall have 28 days after service of the motion pursuant to subdivision (d)(2)(A) to file a response, to which plaintiff may reply within 14 days after service of the response. After the filing of a motion, and response and reply, if any, the judge will enter an order prescribing the procedure to be followed, either specially or pursuant to the rules of the court, or take such other action as may be deemed appropriate.
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