10 U.S. Code § 130f - Notification requirements for sensitive military operations

(a) In General.—
The Secretary of Defense shall promptly submit to the congressional defense committees notice in writing of any sensitive military operation conducted under this title no later than 48 hours following such operation.
(b) Procedures.—
(1)
The Secretary of Defense shall establish and submit to the congressional defense committees procedures for complying with the requirements of subsection (a) consistent with the national security of the United States and the protection of operational integrity. The Secretary shall promptly notify the congressional defense committees in writing of any changes to such procedures at least 14 days prior to the adoption of any such changes.
(2)
The congressional defense committees shall ensure that committee procedures designed to protect from unauthorized disclosure classified information relating to national security of the United States are sufficient to protect the information that is submitted to the committees pursuant to this section.
(3)
In the event of an unauthorized disclosure of a sensitive military operation covered by this section, the Secretary shall ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that the congressional defense committees are notified immediately of the sensitive military operation concerned. The notification under this paragraph may be verbal or written, but in the event of a verbal notification a written notification shall be provided by not later than 48 hours after the provision of the verbal notification.
(c) Briefing Requirement.—
The Secretary of Defense shall periodically brief the congressional defense committees on Department of Defense personnel and equipment assigned to sensitive military operations, including Department of Defense support to such operations conducted under the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.).
(d) Sensitive Military Operation Defined.—
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), in this section, the term “sensitive military operation” means—
(A)
a lethal operation or capture operation conducted by the armed forces or conducted by a foreign partner in coordination with the armed forces that targets a specific individual or individuals; or
(B)
an operation conducted by the armed forces in self-defense or in defense of foreign partners, including during a cooperative operation.
(2)
For purposes of this section, the term “sensitive military operation” does not include any operation conducted within Afghanistan, Syria, or Iraq.
(e) Rule of Construction.—
Nothing in this section shall be construed to provide any new authority or to alter or otherwise affect the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1541 et seq.), the Authorization for Use of Military Force (Public Law 107–40; 50 U.S.C. 1541 note), or any requirement under the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.).
(f) Collective Self-defense Notification Requirement.—
Not later than 48 hours after the date on which a foreign partner force has been designated as eligible for the provision of collective self-defense by the armed forces for the purposes of subsection (d)(1)(B), the Secretary of Defense shall provide to the congressional defense committees notice in writing of such designation.
References in Text

The National Security Act of 1947, referred to in subsecs. (c) and (e), is act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, which is classified principally to chapter 44 (§ 3001 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The War Powers Resolution, referred to in subsec. (e), is Pub. L. 93–148, Nov. 7, 1973, 87 Stat. 555, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§ 1541 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Resolution to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1541 of Title 50 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–232, § 1031(a), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The term ‘sensitive military operation’ means the following:

“(1) A lethal operation or capture operation—

“(A) conducted by the armed forces outside a declared theater of active armed conflict; or

“(B) conducted by a foreign partner in coordination with the armed forces that targets a specific individual or individuals.

“(2) An operation conducted by the armed forces outside a declared theater of active armed conflict in self-defense or in defense of foreign partners, including during a cooperative operation.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–232, § 1031(b), added subsec. (f).

2017—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–91 inserted period at end.

2016—Pub. L. 114–328, § 1036(f)(1), amended section catchline generally, substituting “Notification requirements for sensitive military operations” for “Congressional notification of sensitive military operations”.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–328, § 1036(a), (c)(1), inserted “no later than 48 hours” before “following such operation” and struck out at end “Department of Defense support to operations conducted under the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.) is addressed in the classified annex prepared to accompany the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014.”

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 114–328, § 1036(b)(1), inserted at end “The Secretary shall promptly notify the congressional defense committees in writing of any changes to such procedures at least 14 days prior to the adoption of any such changes”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 114–328, § 1036(b)(2), added par. (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–328, § 1036(c)(2), inserted before period at end “, including Department of Defense support to such operations conducted under the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.)”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–328, § 1036(d), substituted “means the following:” and pars. (1) and (2) for “means a lethal operation or capture operation conducted by the armed forces outside the United States and outside a theater of major hostilities pursuant to—

“(1) the Authorization for Use of Military Force (Public Law 107–40; 50 U.S.C. 1541 note); or

“(2) any other authority except—

“(A) a declaration of war; or

“(B) a specific statutory authorization for the use of force other than the authorization referred to in paragraph (1).”

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 114–328, § 1036(e), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) which provided exception to notification requirement.

2015—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–92 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Effective Date

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, § 1041(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 857, provided that:

Section 130f of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to any sensitive military operation (as defined in subsection (d) of such section) executed on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 26, 2013].”
Comprehensive Department of Defense Policy on Collective Self-Defense

Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XVII, § 1754, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1853, provided that:

“(a) Comprehensive Policy Required.—
The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe a comprehensive written policy for the Department of Defense on the issuance of authorization for, and the provision by members and units of the United States Armed Forces of, collective self-defense to designated foreign nationals, their facilities, and their property.
“(b) Elements.—The policy required by subsection (a) shall address the following:
“(1) Each basis under domestic and international law pursuant to which a member or unit of the United States Armed Forces has been or may be authorized to provide collective self-defense to designated foreign nationals, their facilities, or their property under each circumstance as follows:
“(A)
Inside an area of active hostilities, or in a country or territory in which United States forces are authorized to conduct or support direct action operations.
“(B)
Outside an area of active hostilities, or in a country or territory in which United States forces are not authorized to conduct direct action military operations.
“(C)
When United States personnel, facilities, or equipment are not threatened, including both as described in subparagraph (A) and as described in subparagraph (B).
“(D)
When members of the United States Armed Forces are not participating in a military operation as part of an international coalition.
“(E)
Any other circumstance not encompassed by subparagraphs (A) through (D) in which a member or unit of the United States Armed Forces has been or may be authorized to provide such collective self-defense.
“(2)
A list and explanation of any limitations imposed by law or policy on the provision of collective self-defense to designated foreign nationals, their facilities, and their property under any of the bases in domestic or international law in the circumstances enumerated in paragraph (1), and the conditions under which any such limitation applies.
“(3)
The procedure by which a proposal that any member or unit of the United States Armed Forces provide collective self-defense in support of designated foreign nationals, their facilities, and their property is to be submitted, processed, and endorsed through offices, officers, and officials of the Department to the applicable approval authority for final decision, and a list of any information, advice, or opinion to be included with such proposal in order to inform appropriate action on such proposal by such approval authority.
“(4)
The title and duty position of any officers and officials of the Department empowered to render a final decision on a proposal described in paragraph (3), and the conditions applicable to, and limitations on, the exercise of such decisionmaking authority by each such officer or official.
“(5)
A description of the Rules of Engagement applicable to the provision of collective self-defense to designated foreign nationals, their facilities, and their property under any of the bases in domestic or international law in the circumstances enumerated in paragraph (1), and the conditions under which any such Rules of Engagement would be modified.
“(6)
A description of the process through which policy guidance pertaining to the authorization for, and the provision by members of the United States Armed Forces of, collective self-defense to designated foreign nationals, their facilities, and their property is to be disseminated to the level of tactical execution.
“(7)
Such other matters as the Secretary considers appropriate.
“(c) Report on Policy.—
“(1) In general.—
Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2019], the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report setting forth the policy required by subsection (a).
“(2) DoD general counsel statement.—
The Secretary shall include in the report under paragraph (1) a statement by the General Counsel of the Department of Defense as to whether the policy prescribed pursuant to subsection (a) is consistent with domestic and international law.
“(3) Form.—
The report required by paragraph (1) may be submitted in classified form.
“(d) Briefing on Policy.—
Not later than 30 days after the date of the submittal of the report required by subsection (c), the Secretary shall provide the congressional defense committees a classified briefing on the policy prescribed pursuant to subsection (a). The briefing shall make use of vignettes designated to illustrate real world application of the policy in each the circumstances enumerated in subsection (b)(1).”
Deadline for Submittal of Procedures

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, § 1041(c), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 857, provided that:

“The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] the procedures required under section 130f(b) of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), by not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 26, 2013].”