11 U.S. Code § 549 - Postpetition transactions
Section 549 of the House amendment has been redrafted in order to incorporate sections 342(b) and (c) of the Senate amendment. Those sections have been consolidated and redrafted in section 549(c) of the House amendment. Section 549(d) of the House amendment adopts a provision contained in section 549(c) of the Senate amendment.
This section modifies section 70d of current law [section 110(d) of former title 11]. It permits the trustee to avoid transfers of property that occur after the commencement of the case. The transfer must either have been unauthorized, or authorized under a section that protects only the transferor. Subsection (b) protects “involuntary gap” transferees to the extent of any value (including services, but not including satisfaction of a debt that arose before the commencement of the case), given after commencement in exchange for the transfer. Notice or knowledge of the transferee is irrelevant in determining whether he is protected under this provision.
2005—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–8 inserted “an interest in” after “transfer of” in two places and substituted “purchaser of such real property” for “purchaser of such property” and “such interest” for “the interest”.
1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–394 inserted “the trustee may not avoid under subsection (a) of this section” after “involuntary case,”.
1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–554 substituted “made” for “that occurs”, and “to the extent” for “is valid against the trustee to the extent of”, and inserted “is” before “given”.
1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–353, § 464(a)(1), (2), substituted “(b) or (c)” for “(b) and (c)” in provisions preceding par. (1) and inserted “only” between “authorized” and “under” in par. (2)(A). In the original of Pub. L. 98–353, subsec. (a)(2) of section 464 thereof ended with a period but was followed by pars. (3), (4), and (5). Such pars. (3), (4), and (5) purported to amend subsec. (a) of this section in ways not susceptible of execution. In a predecessor bill [S. 445], these pars. (3), (4), and (5) formed a part of a subsec. (b) of section 361 thereof which amended subsec. (b) of this section. Such subsec. (b) of section 361 of S. 445 was not carried into Pub. L. 98–353, § 464.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–353, § 464(c), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “The trustee may not avoid under subsection (a) of this section a transfer, to a good faith purchaser without knowledge of the commencement of the case and for present fair equivalent value or to a purchaser at a judicial sale, of real property located other than in the county in which the case is commenced, unless a copy of the petition was filed in the office where conveyances of real property in such county are recorded before such transfer was so far perfected that a bona fide purchaser of such property against whom applicable law permits such transfer to be perfected cannot acquire an interest that is superior to the interest of such good faith or judicial sale purchaser. A good faith purchaser, without knowledge of the commencement of the case and for less than present fair equivalent value, of real property located other than in the county in which the case is commenced, under a transfer that the trustee may avoid under this section, has a lien on the property transferred to the extent of any present value given, unless a copy of the petition was so filed before such transfer was so perfected.”
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 98–353, § 464(d), substituted “or” for “and”.
Amendment by Pub. L. 109–8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109–8, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.
Amendment by Pub. L. 103–394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103–394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.