For purposes of any action brought by the Commission under subsection (d) or (e) of section 80a–41 of this title, any person that knowingly or recklessly provides substantial assistance to another person in violation of a provision of this subchapter, or of any rule or regulation issued under this subchapter, shall be deemed to be in violation of such provision to the same extent as the person to whom such assistance is provided.
15 U.S. Code § 80a–47 - Liability of controlling persons; preventing compliance with subchapter
(b) Substantially assisting a violation
(c) Obstructing compliance
2010—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 111–203 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).