17 U.S. Code § 411 - Registration and civil infringement actions
 See References in Text note below.
The first sentence of section 411(a) restates the present statutory requirement that registration must be made before a suit for copyright infringement is instituted. Under the bill, as under the law now in effect, a copyright owner who has not registered his claim can have a valid cause of action against someone who has infringed his copyright, but he cannot enforce his rights in the courts until he has made registration.
The second and third sentences of section 411(a) would alter the present law as interpreted in
Section 411(b) is intended to deal with the special situation presented by works that are being transmitted “live” at the same time they are being fixed in tangible form for the first time. Under certain circumstances, where the infringer has been given advance notice, an injunction could be obtained to prevent the unauthorized use of the material included in the “live” transmission.
2008—Pub. L. 110–403, § 101(a)(1), inserted “civil” before “infringement” in section catchline.
Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–403, § 101(a)(2), substituted “no civil action” for “no action” in first sentence and “a civil action” for “an action” in second sentence.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–403, § 209(a)(6), which directed amendment of subsec. (b) by substituting “section 510” for “sections 509 and 510”, could not be executed because of prior amendment by Pub. L. 110–403, § 101(a)(3), (4). See below.
Pub. L. 110–403, § 101(a)(5), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–403, § 101(a)(4), substituted “505 and section” for “506 and sections 509 and” in introductory provisions.
Pub. L. 110–403, § 101(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c).
2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–9 inserted “preregistration or” after “shall be instituted until”.
1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–304, in first sentence, struck out “actions for infringement of copyright in Berne Convention works whose country of origin is not the United States and” after “Except for” and inserted “United States” after “copyright in any”.
1997—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–80 amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “serves notice upon the infringer, not less than ten or more than thirty days before such fixation, identifying the work and the specific time and source of its first transmission, and declaring an intention to secure copyright in the work; and”.
1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–650 inserted “and an action brought for a violation of the rights of the author under section 106A(a)” after “United States”.
1988—Pub. L. 100–568, § 9(b)(1)(A), substituted “Registration and infringement actions” for “Registration as prerequisite to infringement suit” in section catchline.
Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–568, § 9(b)(1)(B), substituted “Except for actions for infringement of copyright in Berne Convention works whose country of origin is not the United States, and subject” for “Subject”.
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–568, § 9(b)(1)(C), substituted “work, if required by subsection (a),” for “work”.
Amendment by Pub. L. 100–568 effective Mar. 1, 1989, with any cause of action arising under this title before such date being governed by provisions in effect when cause of action arose, see section 13 of Pub. L. 100–568, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.