20 U.S. Code § 7884 - By-pass determination process
The Secretary shall not take any final action under section 7882 of this title until the State educational agency, local educational agency, educational service agency, consortium of those agencies, or entity affected by the action has had an opportunity, for not less than 45 days after receiving written notice thereof, to submit written objections and to appear before the Secretary to show cause why that action should not be taken.
Pending final resolution of any investigation or complaint that could result in a determination under this section, the Secretary may withhold from the allocation of the affected State educational agency or local educational agency the amount estimated by the Secretary to be necessary to pay the cost of those services.
If the affected agency, consortium, or entity is dissatisfied with the Secretary’s final action after a proceeding under paragraph (1), the agency, consortium, or entity may, within 60 days after notice of that action, file with the United States court of appeals for the circuit in which the State is located a petition for review of that action.
A copy of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary.
The Secretary, upon receipt of the copy of the petition, shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which the Secretary based the action, as provided in section 2112 of title 28.
The findings of fact by the Secretary, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive, but the court, for good cause shown, may remand the case to the Secretary to take further evidence and the Secretary may then make new or modified findings of fact and may modify the Secretary’s previous action, and shall file in the court the record of the further proceedings.
Upon the filing of a petition, the court shall have jurisdiction to affirm the action of the Secretary or to set the action aside, in whole or in part.
The judgment of the court shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28.
Any determination by the Secretary under this section shall continue in effect until the Secretary determines, in consultation with that agency, consortium, or entity and representatives of the affected private school children, teachers, or other educational personnel, that there will no longer be any failure or inability on the part of the agency, consortium, or entity to meet the applicable requirements of section 7881 of this title or any other provision of this chapter.
When the Secretary arranges for services pursuant to this section, the Secretary shall, after consultation with the appropriate public and private school officials, pay the cost of those services, including the administrative costs of arranging for those services, from the appropriate allocation or allocations under this chapter.
Any by-pass determination by the Secretary under this chapter as in effect on the day preceding January 8, 2002, shall remain in effect to the extent the Secretary determines that that determination is consistent with the purpose of this section.