22 U.S. Code § 2151d - Development of indigenous energy resources
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(a) Congressional statement of findings
(A) The Congress finds that energy development and production are vital elements in the development process, that energy shortages in developing countries severely limit the development process in such countries, that two-thirds of the developing countries which import oil depend on it for at least 90 percent of the energy which their economies require, and that the dramatic increase in world oil prices since 1973 has resulted in considerable economic hardship for many developing countries. The Congress is concerned that the value and purpose of much of the assistance provided to developing countries under sections 2151a, 2151b, and 2151c of this title are undermined by the inability of many developing countries to satisfy their energy requirements. Unless the energy deficit of the developing countries can be narrowed by more fully exploiting indigenous sources of energy such as oil, natural gas, and coal, scarce foreign exchange will increasingly have to be diverted to oil imports, primarily to the detriment of long-term development and economic growth.
(B) The Congress recognizes that many developing countries lack access to the financial resources and technology necessary to locate, explore, and develop indigenous energy resources.
(C) The Congress declares that there is potential for at least a moderate increase by 1990 in the production of energy for commercial use in the developing countries which are not members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. In addition, there is a compelling need for vigorous efforts to improve the available data on the location, scale, and commercial exploitability of potential oil, natural gas, and coal reserves in developing countries, especially those which are not members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. The Congress further declares that there are many benefits to be gained by the developing countries and by the United States and other developed countries through expanded efforts to expedite the location, exploration, and development of potential sources of energy in developing countries. These benefits include, but are not limited to, the following:
(i) The world’s energy supply would be increased and the fear of abrupt depletion would be lessened with new energy production. This could have a positive impact upon energy prices in international markets as well as a positive effect upon the balance of payments problems of many developing countries.
(ii) Diversification of the world’s supplies of energy from fossil fuels would make all countries, developing and developed, less susceptible to supply interruptions and arbitrary production and pricing policies.
(D) Assistance for the production of energy from indigenous resources, as authorized by subsection (b) of this section, would be of direct benefit to the poor in developing countries because of the overwhelming impact of imported energy costs upon the lives of the poor and their ability to participate in development.
(2) The Congress also finds that energy production from renewable, decentralized sources and energy conservation are vital elements in the development process. Inadequate access by the poor to energy sources as well as the prospect of depleted fossil fuel reserves and higher energy prices require an enhanced effort to expand the energy resources of developing countries through greater emphasis on renewable sources. Renewable and decentralized energy technologies have particular applicability for the poor, especially in rural areas.
(b) General assistance authority; cooperative programs in energy production and conservation; program goals
(1) In order to help developing countries alleviate their energy problems by improving their ability to use indigenous energy resources to produce the energy needed by their economies, the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, to enable such countries to prepare for and undertake development of their energy resources. Such assistance may include data collection and analysis, the training of skilled personnel, research on and development of suitable energy sources, and pilot projects to test new methods of energy production.
(2) The President is authorized to furnish assistance under this part for cooperative programs with developing countries in energy production and conservation, through research on and development and use of small-scale, decentralized, renewable energy sources for rural areas carried out as integral parts of rural development efforts in accordance with section 2151a of this title. Such programs shall also be directed toward the earliest practicable development and use of energy technologies which are environmentally acceptable, require minimum capital investment, are most acceptable to and affordable by the people using them, are simple and inexpensive to use and maintain, and are transferable from one region of the world to another. Such programs may include research on and the development, demonstration, and application of suitable energy technologies (including use of wood); analysis of energy uses, needs, and resources; training and institutional development; and scientific interchange.
(c) Administrative coordination of planning and implementation of programs
The agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter and the Department of Energy shall coordinate with one another, to the maximum extent possible, the planning and implementation of energy programs under this part.
(d) Assistance for programs of technical cooperation and development, research, etc.
The President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, for the following activities, to the extent that such activities are not authorized by sections 2151a, 2151b, and 2151c of this title:
(1) programs of technical cooperation and development, particularly the development efforts of United States private and voluntary agencies and regional and international development organizations;
(2) programs of research into, and evaluation of, the process of economic development in less developed countries and areas, into the factors affecting the relative success and costs of development activities, and into the means, techniques, and such other aspects of development assistance as the President may determine in order to render such assistance of increasing value and benefit;
(3) programs of reconstruction following natural or manmade disasters and programs of disaster preparedness, including the prediction of and contingency planning for natural disasters abroad;
(4) programs designed to help solve special development problems in the poorest countries and to make possible proper utilization of infrastructure and related projects funded with earlier United States assistance; and
(e) Authorization of appropriations
(1) There are authorized to be appropriated to the President for purposes of this section, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes, $207,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $207,000,000 for fiscal year 1987.
(f) Financing cooperative projects among United States, Israel, and developing countries
Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part, $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1987 shall be used to finance cooperative projects among the United States, Israel, and developing countries.
Source(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, § 106, as added Pub. L. 94–161, title III, § 306(2),Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 858; amended Pub. L. 95–88, title I, § 105,Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 535; Pub. L. 95–424, title I, § 106,Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 96–53, title I, §§ 104(b), 105,Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 360, 362; Pub. L. 96–533, title III, § 304(b)–(f), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3146; Pub. L. 97–113, title III, § 304,Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1533; Pub. L. 99–83, title III, § 307, title XII, § 1211(a)(2),Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 215, 279.)
References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II
References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§ 2346 et seq.), VI (§ 2348 et seq.), and VIII (§ 2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) ofPub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section 2346 of this title, and sections 2348c and 2349aa–5 of this title.
A prior section 2151d,Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, § 106, as added Pub. L. 93–189, § 2(3),Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 715, authorized additional appropriations of $53,000,000 for fiscal years 1974, and 1975, for assistance to solve selected development problems in such fields as transportation, power, industry, urban development, and export development, prior to repeal by section 306(1) ofPub. L. 94–161.
1985—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–83, § 1211(a)(2), struck out par. (A) designation, and struck out par. (B) which related to use of funds in fiscal year 1981 for geological and geophysical survey work.
Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 99–83, § 307(a), amended par. (1) generally, substituting provisions authorizing appropriations of $207,000,000 for fiscal years 1986 and 1987 for provisions authorizing appropriations of $147,200,000 for fiscal years 1982 and 1983.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–83, § 307(b), added subsec. (f).
1981—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 97–113, § 304(a), authorized assistance for programs of disaster preparedness, including the prediction of and contingency planning for natural disasters abroad.
Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 97–113, § 304(b), substituted appropriations of $147,200,000 for fiscal years 1982 and 1983, for appropriations of $140,000,000 for fiscal year 1981.
1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–533, § 304(b), designated existing provisions as subpar. (1)(A), substituted subpar. (B), (C), and (D) for par. (2), (3), and (4) designations, substituted in subpar. (C), cl. (i), (ii), and (iii) for (A), (B), and (C) designations, and added par. (2).
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–533, § 304(c), (d), designated existing provisions as subpar. (1)(A), substituted subpar. (B) for par. (2) designation, substituted in subpar. (1)(B) “fiscal year 1981 shall be used for purposes of subparagraph (A)” for “fiscal year 1980 shall be used for purposes of paragraph (1)” and added par. (2).
Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 96–533, § 304(d)–(f), added subsec. (c), redesignated former subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively, and in subsec. (e) designated text as pars. (1) and (2), and in par. (1) as so designated, substituted appropriations authorization of “$140,000,000 for the fiscal year 1981” for such appropriation of “$125,000,000 for the fiscal year 1980”.
1979—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 96–53, § 104(b)(2), (3), added subsecs. (a) and (b). Former subsecs. (a) and (b) redesignated (c) and (d), respectively.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–53, § 104(b)(1), (2), redesignated former subsec. (a) as (c), struck out par. (2), relating to programs to increase energy production and conservation, and redesignated pars. (3) to (6) as (2) to (5), respectively.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–53, §§ 104(b)(2), 105, redesignated former subsec. (b) as (d) and substituted provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal year 1980 of $125,000,000, for provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal year 1979 of $126,244,000, and setting forth requirements for appropriations available to private voluntary agencies of the United States.
1978—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–424substituted “$126,244,000 for the fiscal year 1979, which amount is” for “$104,500,000 for the fiscal year 1977 and $105,000,000 for the fiscal year 1978, which amounts are”.
1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–88struck out provisions authorizing an appropriation of $99,550,000 for fiscal year 1976 and inserted provisions authorizing an appropriation of $105,000,000 for fiscal year 1978.
Effective Date of 1985 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 ofPub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of this title.
Effective Date of 1979 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 96–53effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 512(a) ofPub. L. 96–53, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.
Effective Date of 1978 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 95–424effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 605 ofPub. L. 95–424, set out as a note under section 2151 of this title.
Delegation of Functions