22 U.S. Code § 2152h - Assistance to provide safe water, sanitation, and hygiene

§ 2152h.
Assistance to provide safe water, sanitation, and hygiene
(a) PurposesThe purposes of assistance authorized by this section are—
(1)
to promote good health, economic development, poverty reduction, women’s empowerment, conflict prevention, and environmental sustainability by providing assistance to expand access to safe water and sanitation, promoting integrated water resource management, and improving hygiene for people around the world;
(2)
to seek to reduce by one-half from the baseline year 1990 the proportion of people who are unable to reach or afford safe drinking water and the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation by 2015;
(3)
to focus water and sanitation assistance toward the countries, locales, and people with the greatest need;
(4)
to promote affordability and equity in the provision of access to safe water and sanitation for the very poor, women, and other vulnerable populations;
(5)
to improve water efficiency through water demand management and reduction of unaccounted-for water;
(6)
to promote long-term sustainability in the affordable and equitable provision of access to safe water and sanitation through the creation of innovative financing mechanisms such as national revolving funds, and by strengthening the capacity of recipient governments and communities to formulate and implement policies that expand access to safe water and sanitation in a sustainable fashion, including integrated planning;
(7)
to secure the greatest amount of resources possible, encourage private investment in water and sanitation infrastructure and services, particularly in lower middle-income countries, without creating unsustainable debt for low-income countries or unaffordable water and sanitation costs for the very poor; and
(8)
to promote the capacity of recipient governments to provide affordable, equitable, and sustainable access to safe water and sanitation.
(b) Authorization

To carry out the purposes of subsection (a), the President is authorized to furnish assistance for programs in developing countries to provide affordable and equitable access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene.

(c) Activities supportedAssistance provided under subsection (b) shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be used to—
(1)
expand affordable and equitable access to safe water and sanitation for underserved populations;
(2)
support the design, construction, maintenance, upkeep, repair, and operation of water delivery and sanitation systems;
(3)
improve the safety and reliability of water supplies, including environmental management; and
(4)
improve the capacity of recipient governments and local communities, including capacity-building programs for improved water resource management.
(d) Local currency

The President may use payments made in local currencies under an agreement made under title I of the Food for Peace Act (7 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) to provide assistance under this section.

(e) Coordination and oversight
(1) USAID Global Water Coordinator
(A) Designation

The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (referred to in this paragraph as “USAID”) or the Administrator’s designee, who shall be a current USAID employee serving in a career or non-career position in the Senior Executive Service or at the level of a Deputy Assistant Administrator or higher, shall serve concurrently as the USAID Global Water Coordinator (referred to in this subsection as the “Coordinator”).

(B) Specific dutiesThe Coordinator shall—
(i)
provide direction and guidance to, coordinate, and oversee the projects and programs of USAID authorized under this section;
(ii)
lead the implementation and revision, not less frequently than once every 5 years, of USAID’s portion of the Global Water Strategy required under subsection (j);
(iii) seek—
(I)
to expand the capacity of USAID, subject to the availability of appropriations, including through the designation of a lead subject matter expert selected from among USAID staff in each high priority country designated pursuant to subsection (h);
(II)
to implement such programs and activities;
(III)
to take advantage of economies of scale; and
(IV)
to conduct more efficient and effective projects and programs;
(iv) coordinate with the Department of State and USAID staff in each high priority country designated pursuant to subsection (h) to ensure that USAID activities and projects, USAID program planning and budgeting documents, and USAID country development strategies reflect and seek to implement—
(I)
the safe water, sanitation, and hygiene objectives established in the strategy required under subsection (j), including objectives relating to the management of water resources; and
(II) international best practices relating to—
(aa)
increasing access to safe water and sanitation;
(bb)
conducting hygiene-related activities; and
(cc)
ensuring appropriate management of water resources; and
(v)
develop appropriate benchmarks, measurable goals, performance metrics, and monitoring and evaluation plans for USAID projects and programs authorized under this section.
(2) Department of State Special Coordinator for Water Resources
(A) Designation

The Secretary of State or the Secretary’s designee, who shall be a current employee of the Department of State serving in a career or non-career position in the Senior Executive Service or at the level of a Deputy Assistant Secretary or higher, shall serve concurrently as the Department of State Special Advisor for Water Resources (referred to in this paragraph as the “Special Advisor”).

(B) Specific dutiesThe Special Advisor shall—
(i)
provide direction and guidance to, coordinate, and oversee the projects and programs of the Department of State authorized under this section;
(ii)
lead the implementation and revision, not less than every 5 years, of the Department of State’s portion of the Global Water Strategy required under subsection (j);
(iii)
prioritize and coordinate the Department of State’s international engagement on the allocation, distribution, and access to global fresh water resources and policies related to such matters;
(iv)
coordinate with United States Agency for International Development and Department of State staff in each high priority country designated pursuant to subsection (h) to ensure that United States diplomatic efforts related to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene, including efforts related to management of water resources and watersheds and the resolution of intra- and trans-boundary conflicts over water resources, are consistent with United States national interests; and
(v)
represent the views of the United States Government on the allocation, distribution, and access to global fresh water resources and policies related to such matters in key international fora, including key diplomatic, development-related, and scientific organizations.
(3) Additional nature of duties and restriction on additional or supplemental compensation

The responsibilities and specific duties of the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (or the Administrator’s designee) and the Secretary of State (or the Secretary’s designee) under paragraph (2) or (3), respectively, shall be in addition to any other responsibilities or specific duties assigned to such individuals. Such individuals shall receive no additional or supplemental compensation as a result of carrying out such responsibilities and specific duties under such paragraphs.

(f) Priorities and criteria for maximum impact and long-term sustainabilityThe Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall ensure that the Agency for International Development’s projects and programs authorized under this section are designed to achieve maximum impact and long-term sustainability by—
(1) prioritizing countries on the basis of the following clearly defined criteria and indicators, to the extent sufficient empirical data are available—
(A)
the proportion of the population using an unimproved drinking water source;
(B)
the total population using an unimproved drinking water source;
(C)
the proportion of the population without piped water access;
(D)
the proportion of the population using shared or other unimproved sanitation facilities;
(E)
the total population using shared or other unimproved sanitation facilities;
(F)
the proportion of the population practicing open defecation;
(G)
the total number of children younger than 5 years of age who died from diarrheal disease;
(H)
the proportion of all deaths of children younger than 5 years of age resulting from diarrheal disease;
(I) the national government’s capacity, capability, and commitment to work with the United States to improve access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene, including—
(i)
the government’s capacity and commitment to developing the indigenous capacity to provide safe water and sanitation without the assistance of outside donors; and
(ii) the degree to which such government—
(I)
identifies such efforts as a priority; and
(II)
allocates resources to such efforts;
(J)
the availability of opportunities to leverage existing public, private, or other donor investments in the water, sanitation, and hygiene sectors, including investments in the management of water resources; and
(K)
the likelihood of making significant improvements on a per capita basis on the health and educational opportunities available to women as a result of increased access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene, including access to appropriate facilities at primary and secondary educational institutions seeking to ensure that communities benefitting from such projects and activities develop the indigenous capacity to provide safe water and sanitation without the assistance of outside donors;
(2) prioritizing and measuring, including through rigorous monitoring and evaluating mechanisms, the extent to which such project or program—
(A) furthers significant improvements in—
(i)
the criteria set forth in subparagraphs (A) through (H) of paragraph (1);
(ii)
the health and educational opportunities available to women as a result of increased access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene, including access to appropriate facilities at primary and secondary educational institutions; and
(iii)
the indigenous capacity of the host nation or community to provide safe water and sanitation without the assistance of outside donors;
(B) is designed, as part of the provision of safe water and sanitation to the local community—
(i)
to be financially independent over the long term, focusing on local ownership and sustainability;
(ii)
to be undertaken in conjunction with relevant public institutions or private enterprises;
(iii)
to identify and empower local individuals or institutions to be responsible for the effective management and maintenance of such project or program; and
(iv)
to provide safe water or expertise or capacity building to those identified parties or institutions for the purposes of developing a plan and clear responsibilities for the effective management and maintenance of such project or program;
(C)
leverages existing public, private, or other donor investments in the water, sanitation, and hygiene sectors, including investments in the management of water resources;
(D)
avoids duplication of efforts with other United States Government agencies or departments or those of other nations or nongovernmental organizations;
(E)
coordinates such efforts with the efforts of other United States Government agencies or departments or those of other nations or nongovernmental organizations directed at assisting refugees and other displaced individuals; and
(F)
involves consultation with appropriate stakeholders, including communities directly affected by the lack of access to clean water, sanitation or hygiene, and other appropriate nongovernmental organizations; and
(3)
seeking to further the strategy required under subsection (j) after 2018.
(g) Use of current and improved empirical data collection and review of new standardized indicators
(1) In generalThe Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development is authorized to use current and improved empirical data collection—
(A)
to meet the health-based prioritization criteria established pursuant to subsection (f)(1); and
(B)
to review new standardized indicators in evaluating progress towards meeting such criteria.
(2) Consultation and noticeThe Administrator shall—
(A)
regularly consult with the appropriate congressional committees; and
(B)
notify such committees not later than 30 days before using current or improved empirical data collection for the review of any new standardized indicators under paragraph (1) for the purposes of carrying out this section.
(h) Designation of high priority countries
(1) Initial designationNot later than October 1, 2015, the President shall—
(A)
designate, on the basis of the criteria set forth in subsection (f)(1) not fewer than 10 countries as high priority countries to be the primary recipients of United States Government assistance authorized under this section during fiscal year 2016; and
(B)
notify the appropriate congressional committees of such designations.
(2) Annual designations
(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the President shall annually make new designations pursuant to the criteria set forth in paragraph (1).

(B) Designations after fiscal year 2018Beginning with fiscal year 2019, designations under paragraph (1) shall be made—
(i)
based upon the criteria set forth in subsection (f)(1); and
(ii)
in furtherance of the strategy required under subsection (j).
(i) Targeting of projects and programs to areas of greatest need
(1) In general

Not later than 15 days before the obligation of any funds for water, sanitation, or hygiene projects or programs pursuant to this section in countries that are not ranked in the top 50 countries based upon the WASH Needs Index, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall notify the appropriate congressional committees of the planned obligation of such funds.

(2) Defined term

In this subsection and in subsection (j), the term “WASH Needs Index” means the needs index for water, sanitation, or hygiene projects or programs authorized under this section that has been developed using the criteria and indicators described in subparagraphs (A) through (H) of subsection (f)(1).

(j) Global Water Strategy
(1) In generalNot later than October 1, 2017, October 1, 2022, and October 1, 2027, the President, acting through the Secretary of State, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, and the heads of other Federal departments and agencies, as appropriate, shall submit a single government-wide Global Water Strategy to the appropriate congressional committees that provides a detailed description of how the United States intends—
(A)
to increase access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene in high priority countries designated pursuant to subsection (h), including a summary of the WASH Needs Index and the specific weighting of empirical data and other definitions used to develop and rank countries on the WASH Needs Index;
(B)
to improve the management of water resources and watersheds in such countries; and
(C)
to work to prevent and resolve, to the greatest degree possible, both intra- and trans-boundary conflicts over water resources in such countries.
(2) Agency-specific plansThe Global Water Strategy shall include an agency-specific plan—
(A) from the United States Agency for International Development that describes specifically how the Agency for International Development will—
(i)
carry out the duties and responsibilities assigned to the Global Water Coordinator under subsection (e)(1);
(ii)
ensure that the Agency for International Development’s projects and programs authorized under this section are designed to achieve maximum impact and long-term sustainability, including by implementing the requirements described in subsection (f); and
(iii)
increase access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene in high priority countries designated pursuant to subsection (h);
(B) from the Department of State that describes specifically how the Department of State will—
(i)
carry out the duties and responsibilities assigned to the Special Coordinator for Water Resources under subsection (e)(2); and
(ii) ensure that the Department’s activities authorized under this section are designed—
(I)
to improve management of water resources and watersheds in countries designated pursuant to subsection (h); and
(II)
to prevent and resolve, to the greatest degree possible, both intra- and trans-boundary conflicts over water resources in such countries; and
(C)
from other Federal departments and agencies, as appropriate, that describes the contributions of the departments and agencies to implementing the Global Water Strategy.
(3) Individualized plans for high priority countriesFor each high priority country designated pursuant to subsection (h), the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall—
(A) develop a costed, evidence-based, and results-oriented plan that—
(i)
seeks to achieve the purposes of this section; and
(ii)
meets the requirements under subsection (f); and
(B)
include such plan in an appendix to the Global Water Strategy required under paragraph (1).
(4) First time access reporting requirement

The Global Water Strategy shall specifically describe the target percentage of funding for each fiscal year covered by such strategy to be directed toward projects aimed at providing first-time access to safe water and sanitation.

(5) Performance indicators

The Global Water Strategy shall include specific and measurable goals, benchmarks, performance metrics, timetables, and monitoring and evaluation plans required to be developed by the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development pursuant to subsection (e)(1)(B)(v).

(6) Consultation and best practicesThe Global Water Strategy shall—
(A)
be developed in consultation with the heads of other appropriate Federal departments and agencies; and
(B)
incorporate best practices from the international development community.
(k) DefinitionsIn this section—
(1) the term “appropriate congressional committees” means—
(A)
the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate;
(B)
the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;
(C)
the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives; and
(D)
the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives; and
(2)
the term “long-term sustainability” refers to the ability of a service delivery system, community, partner, or beneficiary to maintain, over time, any water, sanitation, or hygiene project that receives funding pursuant to the amendments made by the Senator Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 2014.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, § 136, formerly § 135, as added Pub. L. 109–121, § 5(a), Dec. 1, 2005, 119 Stat. 2536; amended Pub. L. 110–246, title III, § 3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Q), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820; renumbered § 136 and amended Pub. L. 113–289, §§ 3–6(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3283–3288.)
References in Text

The Food for Peace Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, 68 Stat. 454. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 1701 et seq.) of chapter 41 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1691 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Senator Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 2014, referred to in subsec. (k)(2), is Pub. L. 113–289, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3283, which amended this section and provisions set out as a note under this section. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2014 Amendment note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2014—Pub. L. 113–289, § 3(2)(A), substituted “, sanitation, and hygiene” for “and sanitation” in section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–289, § 3(2)(B), substituted “, sanitation, and hygiene” for “and sanitation”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–289, § 4, added subsec. (e).

Subsecs. (f) to (i). Pub. L. 113–289, § 5, added subsecs. (f) to (i).

Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 113–289, § 6(a), added subsecs. (j) and (k).

2008—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–246 substituted “Food for Peace Act” for “Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954”.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Water for the Poor

Pub. L. 109–121, Dec. 1, 2005, 119 Stat. 2533, as amended by Pub. L. 113–289, § 6(c), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3290, provided that:

“SECTION 1.
SHORT TITLE.

“This Act may be cited as the ‘Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act of 2005’.

“SEC. 2.
FINDINGS.
“Congress makes the following findings:
“(1)
Water-related diseases are a human tragedy, killing up to five million people annually, preventing millions of people from leading healthy lives, and undermining development efforts.
“(2)
A child dies an average of every 15 seconds because of lack of access to safe water and adequate sanitation.
“(3)
In the poorest countries in the world, one out of five children dies from a preventable, water-related disease.
“(4)
Lack of access to safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene practices are directly responsible for the vast majority of diarrheal diseases which kill over two million children each year.
“(5)
At any given time, half of all people in the developing world are suffering from one or more of the main diseases associated with inadequate provision of water supply and sanitation services.
“(6)
Over 1.1 billion people, one in every six people in the world, lack access to safe drinking water.
“(7)
Nearly 2.6 billion people, two in every five people in the world, lack access to basic sanitation services.
“(8)
Half of all schools in the world do not have access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
“(9)
Over the past 20 years, two billion people have gained access to safe drinking water and 600 million people have gained access to basic sanitation services.
“(10)
Access to safe water and sanitation and improved hygiene are significant factors in controlling the spread of disease in the developing world and positively affecting worker productivity and economic development.
“(11)
Increasing access to safe water and sanitation advances efforts toward other development objectives, such as fighting poverty and hunger, promoting primary education and gender equality, reducing child mortality, promoting environmental stability, improving the lives of slum dwellers, and strengthening national security.
“(12)
Providing safe supplies of water and sanitation and hygiene improvements would save millions of lives by reducing the prevalence of water-borne diseases, water-based diseases, water-privation diseases, and water-related vector diseases.
“(13)
Because women and girls in developing countries are often the carriers of water, lack of access to safe water and sanitation disproportionately affects women and limits women’s opportunities at education, livelihood, and financial independence.
“(14)
Between 20 percent and 50 percent of existing water systems in developing countries are not operating or are operating poorly.
“(15)
In developing world water delivery systems, an average of 50 percent of all water is lost before it gets to the end-user.
“(16)
Every $1 invested in safe water and sanitation would yield an economic return of between $3 and $34, depending on the region.
“(17)
Developing sustainable financing mechanisms, such as pooling mechanisms and revolving funds, is necessary for the long-term viability of improved water and sanitation services.
“(18)
The annual level of investment needed to meet the water and sanitation needs of developing countries far exceeds the amount of Official Development Assistance (ODA) and spending by governments of developing countries, so facilitating and attracting greater public and private investment is essential.
“(19)
Meeting the water and sanitation needs of the lowest-income developing countries will require an increase in the resources available as grants from donor countries.
“(20)
The long-term sustainability of improved water and sanitation services can be advanced by promoting community level action and engagement with civil society.
“(21)
Target 10 of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals is to reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by 2015.
“(22)
The participants in the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, including the United States, agreed to the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development which included an agreement to work to reduce by one-half ‘the proportion of people who are unable to reach or afford safe drinking water,’ and ‘the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation’ by 2015.
“(23)
At the World Summit on Sustainable Development, the United States announced the Water for the Poor Initiative, committing $970 million for fiscal years 2003 through 2005 to improve sustainable management of fresh water resources and accelerate and expand international efforts to achieve the goal of cutting in half by 2015 the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water.
“(24)
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 58/217 (February 9, 2004) proclaimed ‘the period from 2005 to 2015 the International Decade for Action, “Water for Life”, to commence on World Water Day, 22 March 2005’ for the purpose of increasing the focus of the international community on water-related issues at all levels and on the implementation of water-related programs and projects.
“(25)
Around the world, 263 river basins are shared by two or more countries, and many more basins and watersheds cross political or ethnic boundaries.
“(26)
Water scarcity can contribute to insecurity and conflict on subnational, national, and international levels, thus endangering the national security of the United States.
“(27)
Opportunities to manage water problems can be leveraged in ways to build confidence, trust, and peace between parties in conflict.
“(28)
Cooperative water management can help resolve conflicts caused by other problems and is often a crucial component in resolving such conflicts.
“(29)
Cooperative water management can help countries recover from conflict and, by promoting dialogue and cooperation among former parties in conflict, can help prevent the reemergence of conflict.
“SEC. 3.
STATEMENT OF POLICY.
“It is the policy of the United States—
“(1)
to increase the percentage of water and sanitation assistance targeted toward countries designated as high priority countries under section 6(f) of this Act;
“(2)
to ensure that water and sanitation assistance reflect an appropriate balance of grants, loans, contracts, investment insurance, loan guarantees, and other assistance to further ensure affordability and equity in the provision of access to safe water and sanitation for the very poor;
“(3)
to ensure that the targeting of water and sanitation assistance reflect an appropriate balance between urban, periurban, and rural areas to meet the purposes of assistance described in section 135 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this section], as added by section 5(a) of this Act;
“(4)
to ensure that forms of water and sanitation assistance provided reflect the level of existing resources and markets for investment in water and sanitation within recipient countries;
“(5)
to ensure that water and sanitation assistance, to the extent possible, supports the poverty reduction strategies of recipient countries and, when appropriate, encourages the inclusion of water and sanitation within such poverty reduction strategies;
“(6)
to promote country and local ownership of safe water and sanitation programs, to the extent appropriate;
“(7)
to promote community-based approaches in the provision of affordable and equitable access to safe water and sanitation, including the involvement of civil society;
“(8)
to mobilize and leverage the financial and technical capacity of businesses, governments, nongovernmental organizations, and civil society in the form of public-private alliances;
“(9)
to encourage reforms and increase the capacity of foreign governments to formulate and implement policies that expand access to safe water and sanitation in an affordable, equitable, and sustainable manner, including integrated strategic planning; and
“(10)
to protect the supply and availability of safe water through sound environmental management, including preventing the destruction and degradation of ecosystems and watersheds.
“SEC. 4.
SENSE OF CONGRESS.
“It is the sense of Congress that—
“(1)
in order to make the most effective use of amounts of Official Development Assistance for water and sanitation and avoid waste and duplication, the United States should seek to establish innovative international coordination mechanisms based on best practices in other development sectors; and
“(2)
the United States should greatly increase the amount of Official Development Assistance made available to carry out section 135 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this section], as added by section 5(a) of this Act.
“SEC. 5.
ASSISTANCE TO PROVIDE SAFE WATER AND SANITATION.
“(a)In General.—
[Enacted this section.]
“(b)Conforming Amendment.—
[Amended section 1704 of Title 7, Agriculture.]
“[SEC. 6.
Repealed. Pub. L. 113–289, § 6(c), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3290.]
“SEC. 7.
MONITORING REQUIREMENT.

“The Secretary of State and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall monitor the implementation of assistance under section 135 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this section], as added by section 5(a) of this Act, to ensure that the assistance is reaching its intended targets and meeting the intended purposes of assistance.

“SEC. 8.
SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL CAPACITY.

“It is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of State should expand current programs and develop new programs, as necessary, to train local water and sanitation managers and other officials of countries that receive assistance under section 135 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [this section], as added by section 5(a) of this Act.

“SEC. 9.
SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING ADDITIONAL WATER AND SANITATION PROGRAMS.
“It is the sense of the Congress that—
“(1)
the United States should further support, as appropriate, water and sanitation activities of United Nations agencies, such as the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); and
“(2)
the Secretary of the Treasury should instruct each United States Executive Director at the multilateral development banks (within the meaning of section 1701(c) of the International Financial Institutions Act [22 U.S.C. 262r(c)]) to encourage the inclusion of water and sanitation programs as a critical element of their development assistance.
“SEC. 10.
REPORT REGARDING WATER FOR PEACE AND SECURITY.
“(a)Sense of Congress.—
It is the sense of Congress that United States programs to support and encourage efforts around the world to develop river basin, aquifer, and other watershed-wide mechanisms for governance and cooperation are critical components of long-term United States national security and should be expanded.
“(b)Report.—
The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, shall submit to the Committee on International Relations [now Committee on Foreign Affairs] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a report on efforts that the United States is making to support and promote programs that develop river basin, aquifer, and other watershed-wide mechanisms for governance and cooperation.
“SEC. 11.
AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.
“(a)In General.—
There are authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 2006 and each subsequent fiscal year such sums as may be necessary to carry out this Act and the amendments made by this Act.
“(b)Other Amounts.—
Amounts appropriated pursuant to the authorization of appropriations in subsection (a) shall be in addition to the amounts otherwise available to carry out this Act and the amendments made by this Act.
“(c)Availability.—
Amounts appropriated pursuant to the authorization of appropriations under subsection (a) are authorized to remain available until expended.”

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