22 U.S. Code § 2731 - Monitoring and combating anti-Semitism

(a) Office to Monitor and Combat anti-Semitism
(1) Establishment of Office

The Secretary shall establish within the Department of State an Office to Monitor and Combat anti-Semitism (in this section referred to as the “Office”).

(2) Head of Office
(A) Special Envoy for Monitoring and Combating anti-Semitism

The head of the Office shall be the Special Envoy for Monitoring and Combating anti-Semitism (in this section referred to as the “Special Envoy”), who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Special Envoy shall report directly to the Secretary.

(B) Nomination of head of Office

If the President determines that such is appropriate, the President may nominate the Special Envoy from among officers and employees of the Department. Such officer or employee may not retain the position (or the responsibilities associated with such position) held by such officer or employee prior to the nomination of such officer or employee to the position of Special Envoy under this paragraph.

(3) Duties

The Special Envoy shall serve as the primary advisor to, and coordinate efforts across, the United States Government relating to monitoring and combating anti-Semitism and anti-Semitic incitement that occur in foreign countries.

(4) Rank and status of ambassador

The Special Envoy shall have the rank of ambassador.

(5) Qualifications

The Special Envoy should be a person of recognized distinction in the field of combating anti-Semitism.

(b) Purpose of OfficeUpon establishment, the Office shall assume the primary responsibility for—
(1)
monitoring and combating acts of anti-Semitism and anti-Semitic incitement that occur in foreign countries;
(2)
coordinating and assisting in the preparation of that portion of the report required by sections 2151n(d)(7) and 2304(b) of this title relating to an assessment and description of the nature and extent of acts of anti-Semitism and anti-Semitic incitement for inclusion in the annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices; and
(3)
coordinating and assisting in the preparation of that portion of the report required by section 6412(b)(1)(A)(iv)[1] of this title relating to an assessment and description of the nature and extent of acts of anti-Semitism and anti-Semitic incitement for inclusion in the Annual Report on International Religious Freedom.
(c) Consultations

The Special Envoy shall consult with domestic and international nongovernmental organizations and multilateral organizations and institutions, as the Special Envoy considers appropriate to fulfill the purposes of this section.

(Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 841, title I, § 59, as added Pub. L. 108–332, § 5, Oct. 16, 2004, 118 Stat. 1284; Pub. L. 116–326, § 3, Jan. 13, 2021, 134 Stat. 5095.)


[1]  See References in Text note below.
Editorial Notes
References in Text

Section 6412(b)(1)(A)(iv) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), was redesignated section 6412(b)(1)(A)(vii) of this title by Pub. L. 114–281, title I, § 102(a)(2)(B), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1429.

Amendments

2021—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 116–326, § 3(1)(A), inserted at end “, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Special Envoy shall report directly to the Secretary.”

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 116–326, § 3(1)(B), substituted “Nomination” for “Appointment” in heading, “If the President determines that such is appropriate, the President may nominate” for “If the Secretary determines that such is appropriate, the Secretary may appoint” in second sentence, and “Such officer or employee may not retain the position (or the responsibilities associated with such position) held by such officer or employee prior to the nomination” for “The Secretary may allow such officer or employee to retain the position (and the responsibilities associated with such position) held by such officer or employee prior to the appointment” in third sentence, and struck out first sentence which read “The Secretary shall appoint the Special Envoy.

Subsec. (a)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 116–326, § 3(2), added pars. (3) to (5).

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Findings

Pub. L. 116–326, § 2, Jan. 13, 2021, 134 Stat. 5095, provided that:

Congress finds that, since the Global Anti-Semitism Review Act of 2004 (Public Law 108–332) was enacted, in many foreign countries acts of anti-Semitism have been frequent and wide in scope, the perpetrators and variety of threats to Jewish communities and their institutions have proliferated, and in some countries anti-Semitic attacks have increased in frequency, scope, violence, and deadliness.”

Pub. L. 108–332, § 2, Oct. 16, 2004, 118 Stat. 1282, provided that:

Congress makes the following findings:
“(1)
Acts of anti-Semitism in countries throughout the world, including some of the world’s strongest democracies, have increased significantly in frequency and scope over the last several years.
“(2) During the last 3 months of 2003 and the first 3 months of 2004, there were numerous instances of anti-Semitic violence around the world, including the following incidents:
“(A)
In Putrajaya, Malaysia, on October 16, 2003, former Prime Minister Mahatir Mohammad told the 57 national leaders assembled for the Organization of the Islamic Conference that Jews ‘rule the world by proxy’, and called for a ‘final victory’ by the world’s 1.3 billion Muslims, who, he said, ‘cannot be defeated by a few million Jews.’.
“(B)
In Istanbul, Turkey, on November 15, 2003, simultaneous car bombs exploded outside two synagogues filled with worshippers, killing 24 people and wounding more than 250 people.
“(C)
In Australia on January 5, 2004, poison was used to ignite, and burn anti-Semitic slogans into, the lawns of the Parliament House in the state of Tasmania.
“(D)
In St. Petersburg, Russia, on February 15, 2004, vandals desecrated approximately 50 gravestones in a Jewish cemetery, painting the stones with swastikas and anti-Semitic graffiti.
“(E)
In Toronto, Canada, over the weekend of March 19 through March 21, 2004, vandals attacked a Jewish school, a Jewish cemetery, and area synagogues, painting swastikas and anti-Semitic slogans on the walls of a synagogue and on residential property in a nearby, predominantly Jewish, neighborhood.
“(F)
In Toulon, France, on March 23, 2004, a Jewish synagogue and community center were set on fire.
“(3)
Anti-Semitism in old and new forms is also increasingly emanating from the Arab and Muslim world on a sustained basis, including through books published by government-owned publishing houses in Egypt and other Arab countries.
“(4)
In November 2002, state-run television in Egypt broadcast the anti-Semitic series entitled ‘Horseman Without a Horse’, which is based upon the fictitious conspiracy theory known as the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. The Protocols have been used throughout the last century by despots such as Adolf Hitler to justify violence against Jews.
“(5)
In November 2003, Arab television featured an anti-Semitic series, entitled ‘Ash-Shatat’ (or ‘The Diaspora’), which depicts Jewish people hatching a plot for Jewish control of the world.
“(6)
The sharp rise in anti-Semitic violence has caused international organizations such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) to elevate, and bring renewed focus to, the issue, including the convening by the OSCE in June 2003 of a conference in Vienna dedicated solely to the issue of anti-Semitism.
“(7)
The OSCE convened a conference again on April 28–29, 2004, in Berlin, to address the problem of anti-Semitism with the United States delegation led by former Mayor of New York City, Ed Koch.
“(8)
The United States Government has strongly supported efforts to address anti-Semitism through bilateral relationships and interaction with international organizations such as the OSCE, the European Union, and the United Nations.
“(9)
Congress has consistently supported efforts to address the rise in anti-Semitic violence. During the 107th Congress, both the Senate and the House of Representatives passed resolutions expressing strong concern with the sharp escalation of anti-Semitic violence in Europe and calling on the Department of State to thoroughly document the phenomenon.
“(10)
Anti-Semitism has at times taken the form of vilification of Zionism, the Jewish national movement, and incitement against Israel.”