References in Text
Titles I, IV, and V of this Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(C), (F)(i), are titles I, IV, and V of Pub. L. 105–292, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2791, 2800, 2811. Titles I and IV are classified principally to this subchapter (§ 6411 et seq.) and subchapter III (§ 6441 et seq.) of this chapter, respectively. Title V amended sections 2151n, 2452, 3965, 4013, and 6202 of this title and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 2151n of this title. For complete classification of titles I, IV, and V to the Code, see Tables.
This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(F)(ii), (2), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 105–292, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2787, known as the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6401 of this title and Tables.
2019—Subsec. (b)(1)(G). Pub. L. 115–434 added subpar. (G).
2016—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 114–281, § 102(a)(1), substituted “May 1” for “September 1” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 114–281, § 102(a)(2)(A), substituted “as well as the routine denial of visa applications for religious workers;” for “; and”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iv) to (vii). Pub. L. 114–281, § 102(a)(2)(B), (C), added cls. (iv) to (vi) and redesignated former cl. (iv) as (vii).
Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–281, § 102(a)(3), in introductory provisions, inserted “persecution of lawyers, politicians, or other human rights advocates seeking to defend the rights of members of religious groups or highlight religious freedom violations, prohibitions on ritual animal slaughter or male infant circumcision,” after “entire religions,” and “policies that ban or restrict the public manifestation of religious belief and the peaceful involvement of religious groups or their members in the political life of each such foreign country,” after “such groups,”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 114–281, § 102(a)(4), substituted “A detailed description of United States actions, diplomatic and political coordination efforts, and other” for “A description of United States actions and”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(F)(i). Pub. L. 114–281, § 102(a)(5), substituted “section 6442(b)(1)(A)(ii) of this title” for “section 6442(b)(1) of this title” and inserted at end “Any country in which a non-state actor designated as an entity of particular concern for religious freedom under section 6442a of this title is located shall be included in this section of the report.”
2004—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 108–332 added cl. (iv).
2002—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 107–228 inserted “including policies that discriminate against particular religious groups or members of such groups,” after “the existence of government policies violating religious freedom,”.
Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions
For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.
Pub. L. 115–434, § 2, Jan. 14, 2019, 132 Stat. 5526, provided that:
“Congress finds the following:
During the past decade, there has been a steady increase in anti-Semitic incidents in Europe, resulting in European Jews being the targets of physical and verbal harassment and even lethal terrorist attacks, all of which has eroded personal and communal security and the quality of daily Jewish life.
According to reporting by the European Union Agency
for Fundamental Rights (FRA), between 2005 and 2014, anti-Semitic incidents increased in France from 508 to 851; in Germany from 60 to 173; in Belgium from 58 to 130; in Italy from 49 to 86; and in the United Kingdom from 459 to 1,168.
Anti-Zionism has at times devolved into anti-Semitic attacks, prompting condemnation from many European leaders, including French Prime Minister Manuel Valls, British Prime Minister David Cameron, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel.
“(4) Since 2010, the Department of State has adhered to the working definition of Anti-Semitism by the European Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC). Some contemporary examples of anti-Semitism include the following:
Calling for, aiding, or justifying the killing or harming of Jews (often in the name of a radical ideology or an extremist view of religion).
Making mendacious, dehumanizing, demonizing, or stereotypical allegations about Jews as such, or the power of Jews as a collective, especially, but not exclusively, the myth about a world Jewish conspiracy or of Jews controlling the media, economy, government
, or other societal institutions.
Accusing Jews as a people of being responsible for real or imagined wrongdoing committed by a single Jewish person
or group, the State of Israel, or even for acts committed by non-Jews.
Accusing the Jews as a people, or Israel as a state, of inventing or exaggerating the Holocaust.
Accusing Jewish citizens of being more loyal to Israel, or to the alleged priorities of Jews worldwide, than to the interest of their own countries.
On October 16, 2004
, the President signed into law the Global Anti-Semitism Review Act of 2004
[see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note set out under section 2651 of this title
]. This law provides the legal foundation for a reporting requirement provided by the Department of State
annually on anti-Semitism around the world.
In November 2015, the House of Representatives
passed H. Res. 354 by a vote of 418–0, urging the Secretary
of State to continue robust United States
reporting on anti-Semitism by the Department of State
and the Special Envoy to Combat and Monitor Anti-Semitism.
In 2016, the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA), comprised of 31 member countries, adopted a working definition of anti-Semitism which stated: ‘Anti-Semitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of anti-Semitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities.’.
The IHRA further clarified that manifestations of anti-Semitism might also target the State of Israel, conceived of as a Jewish collectivity. Anti-Semitism frequently charges Jews with conspiring to harm humanity, and it is often used to blame Jews for ‘why things go wrong’. It is expressed in speech, writing, visual forms, and action, and employs sinister stereotypes and negative character traits.”