Any person who willfully fails or refuses to comply with any lawful order of the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating or the Chief of Engineers issued under the provisions of this subchapter, or who willfully fails to comply with any specific condition imposed by the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating relating to the maintenance and operation of bridges, or who willfully refuses to produce books, papers, or documents in obedience to a subpena or other lawful requirement under this subchapter, or who otherwise willfully violates any provisions of this subchapter, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not to exceed $5,000 or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
Whoever violates any provision of this subchapter, or any order issued under this subchapter, shall be liable to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for a violation occurring in 2004; $10,000 for a violation occurring in 2005; $15,000 for a violation occurring in 2006; $20,000 for a violation occurring in 2007; and $25,000 for a violation occurring in 2008 and any year thereafter. Each day a violation continues shall be deemed a separate offense. No penalty may be assessed under this subsection until the person charged is given notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the charge. The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may assess and collect any civil penalty incurred under this subsection and, in his discretion, may remit, mitigate, or compromise any penalty until the matter is referred to the Attorney General. If a person against whom a civil penalty is assessed under this subsection fails to pay that penalty, an action may be commenced in the district court of the United States for any district in which the violation occurs for such penalty.