References in Text
The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(5) and (e)(2)(A), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Titles V, XIX, and XXI of the Act are classified generally to subchapters V (§ 701 et seq.), XIX (§ 1396 et seq.), and XXI (§ 1397aa et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.
The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(C), is Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, which is classified principally to chapter 46 (§ 5301 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of Title 25 and Tables.
The Indian Health Care Improvement Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(C), is Pub. L. 94–437, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1400, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 18 (§ 1601 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 25 and Tables.
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (k), is Pub. L. 89–10, Apr. 11, 1965, 79 Stat. 27, which is classified generally to chapter 70 (§ 6301 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6301 of Title 20 and Tables.
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, referred to in subsec. (k), is Pub. L. 107–110, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1425. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2002 Amendment note set out under section 6301 of Title 20, Education, and Tables.
A prior section 290bb–36, act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title V, § 520E, as added Pub. L. 106–310, div. B, title XXXI, § 3111, Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1186, and amended, which related to suicide prevention for children and adolescents, was renumbered section 520E–1 of act July 1, 1944, by Pub. L. 108–355, § 3(b)(2), Oct. 21, 2004, 118 Stat. 1409, and transferred to section 290bb–36a of this title.
2020—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 116–260 added par. (4).
2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–255, § 6001(c)(1), substituted “Assistant Secretary for Mental Health and Substance Use” for “Administrator of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–255, § 9008(b)(1), substituted “substance use disorder” for “substance abuse”.
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 114–255, § 9008(b)(2)(A), substituted “ensure that a State does not receive more than 1 grant or cooperative agreement under this section at any 1 time” for “ensure that each State is awarded only 1 grant or cooperative agreement under this section” and “received” for “been awarded”.
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 114–255, § 9008(b)(2)(B), added par. (3).
Subsec. (c)(1), (7). Pub. L. 114–255, § 9008(b)(1), substituted “substance use disorder” for “substance abuse”.
Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 114–255, § 9008(b)(3), substituted “2 years after December 13, 2016,” for “2 years after October 21, 2004,”.
Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 114–255, § 9008(b)(4), added subsec. (m) and struck out former subsec. (m) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 2005 to 2007 and provided that the Secretary should give preference to certain States if less than $3,500,000 was appropriated for any fiscal year.
2015—Subsec. (l)(2)(C). Pub. L. 114–95 substituted “elementary school or secondary school (as such terms are defined in section 8101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965)” for “elementary or secondary school (as such terms are defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965)”.
Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Pub. L. 108–355, § 2, Oct. 21, 2004, 118 Stat. 1404, provided that:
“Congress makes the following findings:
More children and young adults die from suicide each year than from cancer, heart disease, AIDS, birth defects, stroke, and chronic lung disease combined.
Over 4,000 children and young adults tragically take their lives every year, making suicide the third overall cause of death between the ages of 10 and 24. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, suicide is the third overall cause of death among college-age students.
According to the National Center for Injury Prevention
and Control of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
, children and young adults accounted for 15 percent of all suicides completed in 2000.
From 1952 to 1995, the rate of suicide in children and young adults tripled.
From 1980 to 1997, the rate of suicide among young adults ages 15 to 19 increased 11 percent.
From 1980 to 1997, the rate of suicide among children ages 10 to 14 increased 109 percent.
According to the National Center of Health Statistics, suicide rates among Native Americans range from 1.5 to 3 times the national average for other groups, with young people ages 15 to 34 making up 64 percent of all suicides.
has recognized that youth
suicide is a public health tragedy linked to underlying mental health problems and that youth
suicide early intervention
activities are national priorities.
suicide early intervention
have been listed as urgent public health priorities by the President’s New Freedom
Commission in [probably should be “on”] Mental Health (2002), the Institute of Medicine’s Reducing Suicide: A National Imperative (2002), the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention:
Goals and Objectives for Action (2001), and the Surgeon General’
s Call to Action To Prevent Suicide (1999).
In a recent report, a startling 85 percent of college counseling centers revealed an increase in the number of students they see with psychological problems. Furthermore, the American College Health Association found that 61 percent of college students reported feeling hopeless, 45 percent said they felt so depressed they could barely function, and 9 percent felt suicidal.
There is clear evidence of an increased incidence of depression among college students. According to a survey described in the Chronicle of Higher Education (February 1, 2002
), depression among freshmen has nearly doubled (from 8.2 percent to 16.3 percent). Without treatment, researchers recently noted that ‘depressed adolescents are at risk for school
failure, social isolation, promiscuity, self-medication with drugs and alcohol, and suicide—now the third leading cause of death among 10–24 year olds.’.
Researchers who conducted the study ‘Changes in Counseling Center Client Problems Across 13 Years’ (1989–2001) at Kansas State University stated that ‘students are experiencing more stress, more anxiety, more depression than they were a decade ago.’ (The Chronicle of Higher Education, February 14, 2003).
According to the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 20 percent of full-time undergraduate college students use illicit drugs.
The 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse also reported that 18.4 percent of adults aged 18 to 24 are dependent on or abusing illicit drugs or alcohol. In addition, the study found that ‘serious mental illness is highly correlated with substance dependence or abuse. Among adults with serious mental illness in 2001, 20.3 percent were dependent on or abused alcohol or illicit drugs, while the rate among adults without serious mental illness was only 6.3 percent.’.
A 2003 Gallagher’s Survey of Counseling Center Directors found that 81 percent were concerned about the increasing number of students with more serious psychological problems, 67 percent reported a need for more psychiatric services
, and 63 percent reported problems with growing demand for services
without an appropriate increase in resources.
The International Association of Counseling Services
accreditation standards recommend 1 counselor per 1,000 to 1,500 students. According to the 2003 Gallagher’s Survey of Counseling Center Directors, the ratio of counselors to students is as high as 1 counselor per 2,400 students at institutions of higher education with more than 15,000 students.”