42 U.S. Code § 9844 - Research, demonstrations, and evaluation
The Secretary shall take necessary steps to ensure that all studies, reports, proposals, and data produced or developed with Federal funds under this subchapter shall become the property of the United States.
The members of the panel shall not receive compensation for the performance of services for the panel, but shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the panel. Notwithstanding section 1342 of title 31, the Secretary may accept the voluntary and uncompensated services of members of the panel.
After reviewing the recommendations of the expert panel, the Secretary shall make a grant to, or enter into a contract or cooperative agreement with, an organization to conduct independent research that provides a national analysis of the impact of Head Start programs. The Secretary shall ensure that the organization shall have expertise in program evaluation, and research, education, and early childhood programs.
The Secretary shall ensure that the research uses rigorous methodological designs and techniques (based on the recommendations of the expert panel), including longitudinal designs, control groups, nationally recognized standardized measures, and random selection and assignment, as appropriate. The Secretary may provide that the research shall be conducted as a single comprehensive assessment or as a group of coordinated assessments designed to provide, when taken together, a national analysis of the impact of Head Start programs.
The Secretary shall ensure that the research focuses primarily on Head Start programs that operate in the 50 States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia and that do not specifically target special populations.
The organization shall prepare and submit to the Secretary two interim reports on the research. The first interim report shall describe the design of the research, and the rationale for the design, including a description of how potential sources of variation in impact of Head Start programs have been considered in designing the research. The second interim report shall describe the status of the research and preliminary findings of the research, as appropriate.
The organization shall prepare and submit to the Secretary a final report containing the findings of the research.
Not later than 1 year after December 12, 2007, the Secretary shall conduct a study on the status of limited English proficient children and their families participating in Head Start programs (including Early Head Start programs).
For purposes of conducting the study described in subsection (h), activities described in section 9835(l)(5)(A) of this title, and other research and evaluation activities relevant to limited English proficient children and their families, migrant and seasonal farmworker families, and other families from diverse populations served by Head Start programs, the Secretary shall award, on a competitive basis, funds from amounts made available under section 9835(a)(2)(D) of this title to 1 or more organizations with a demonstrated capacity for serving and studying the populations involved.
Not later than 1 year after December 12, 2007, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a notice about how the Secretary plans to implement the activities identified in paragraph (1) and shall provide a period for public comment. To the extent practicable, the Secretary shall consider comments received before implementing any of the activities identified in paragraph (1).
Not later than 18 months after December 12, 2007, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate detailing how the Secretary plans to implement the activities identified in paragraph (1), including the progress made in reaching out to and serving eligible children of migrant and seasonal farmworkers, and information on States where such children are still underserved.
The Secretary shall, through regulation, ensure the protection of the confidentiality of any personally identifiable data, information, and records collected or maintained by the Secretary, by Head Start agencies that carry out migrant or seasonal Head Start programs, by the State director of Head Start Collaboration, and by the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Collaboration project Director (such regulations shall provide the policies, protections, and rights equivalent to those provided a parent, student, or educational agency or institution under section 1232g of title 20).
The purpose of this subsection is to evaluate the emergency preparedness of the Head Start programs, including Early Head Start programs, and make recommendations for how Head Start shall enhance its readiness to respond to an emergency.
The Secretary shall evaluate the Federal, State, and local preparedness of Head Start programs, including Early Head Start programs, to respond appropriately in the event of a large-scale emergency, such as the hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, or other incidents where assistance may be warranted under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.).
 So in original. Probably should be “services or”.
 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.
The effective date of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (k)(3), (4), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–134, which enacted subsec. (k) of this section and was approved Dec. 12, 2007.
The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (m)(2), is Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, which is classified principally to chapter 68 (§ 5121 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of this title and Tables.
2007—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 110–134, § 20(1), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “use the Head Start programs to develop, test, and disseminate new ideas and approaches for addressing the needs of low-income preschool children (including children with disabilities) and their families and communities (including demonstrations of innovative noncenter-based program models such as home-based and mobile programs), and otherwise to further the purposes of this subchapter.”
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–134, § 20(2)(F), struck out concluding provisions which read as follows: “The Secretary shall ensure that an appropriate entity carries out a study described in paragraph (9), and prepares and submits to the appropriate committees of Congress a report containing the results of the study, not later than September 30, 2002.”
Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 110–134, § 20(2)(E), added par. (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (6).
Pub. L. 110–134, § 20(2)(C), substituted “early childhood education and development or services programs” for “early childhood education, or child development services”.
Subsec. (d)(6), (7). Pub. L. 110–134, § 20(2)(D), redesignated pars. (5) and (6) as (6) and (7), respectively. Former par. (7) redesignated (8).
Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 110–134, § 20(2)(D), redesignated par. (7) as (8). Former par. (8) redesignated (9).
Pub. L. 110–134, § 20(2)(A), inserted “and” at end.
Subsec. (d)(9). Pub. L. 110–134, § 20(2)(B), (D), redesignated par. (8) as (9) and struck out former par. (9) which read as follows: “study the experiences of small, medium, and large States with Head Start programs in order to permit comparisons of children participating in the programs with eligible children who did not participate in the programs, which study—
“(A) may include the use of a data set that existed prior to the initiation of the study; and
“(B) shall compare the educational achievement, social adaptation, and health status of the participating children and the eligible nonparticipating children; and”
Subsec. (d)(10). Pub. L. 110–134, § 20(2)(B), added par. (10) and struck out former par. (10) which provided for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to conduct certain analyses, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine certain outcomes, and the Survey of Program Dynamics to begin certain annual reporting.
Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 110–134, § 20(3), substituted “early childhood education and development services or programs” for “child care, early childhood education, or child development services”.
Subsec. (g)(7)(C). Pub. L. 110–134, § 20(4), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:
“(i) In general.—The Secretary shall transmit, to the committees described in clause (ii), the first interim report by September 30, 1999, the second interim report by September 30, 2001, and the final report by September 30, 2003.
“(ii) Committees.—The committees referred to in clause (i) are the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate.”
Subsecs. (h) to (m). Pub. L. 110–134, § 20(5), added subsecs. (h) to (m) and struck out former subsec. (h) which related to quality improvement study.
1998—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 105–244 substituted “section 1001” for “section 1141(a)”.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–285, § 116(1)(E), inserted concluding provisions.
Subsec. (d)(2) to (8). Pub. L. 105–285, § 116(1)(C), (D), added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) to (7) as (3) to (8), respectively.
Subsec. (d)(9), (10). Pub. L. 105–285, § 116(1)(A), (B), (E), added pars. (9) and (10).
Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 105–285, § 116(2), added subsecs. (g) and (h).
1994—Pub. L. 103–252 substituted “Research, demonstrations, and evaluation” for “Research, demonstration, pilot projects, studies, and reports” in section catchline and amended text generally, substituting provisions requiring Secretary to conduct a research, demonstration, and evaluation program to continually improve Head Start programs and develop innovative ways to further purposes of this subchapter, consult with others on the program, consider longitudinal studies in developing priorities for program, and ensure all products of program become United States property and defining objectives of program, for provisions authorizing the Secretary to provide financial assistance through contracts and grants for research, demonstration or pilot projects to develop new approaches to further purposes of this subchapter, directing Secretary to establish plan for approval of such projects, restricting combination of funds appropriated under this subchapter with other appropriations to make a single grant, requiring Secretary to conduct study of approaches to provide early, continuous, and comprehensive intervention to low-income or at-risk children and study of family day care in compliance with performance standards and to report results of studies to Congress.
1990—Pub. L. 101–501, § 117(a)(1), substituted “Research, demonstration, pilot projects, studies, and reports” for “Research, demonstration, and pilot projects” in section catchline.
Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 101–501, § 117(a)(2), added subsecs. (d) to (f).
1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–558 added subsec. (c).
Committee on Education and Labor of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Education and the Workforce of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, Jan. 5, 2011.
Amendment by Pub. L. 103–252 effective May 18, 1994, but not applicable to Head Start agencies and other recipients of financial assistance under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.) until Oct. 1, 1994, see section 127 of Pub. L. 103–252, set out as a note under section 9832 of this title.
Pub. L. 103–252, title I, § 126, May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 650, directed Secretary of Health and Human Services to conduct a study of extent to which Head Start programs address the need for Head Start services during a full working day or full calendar year among eligible low-income families with preschool children and to submit a report to Congress not later than Jan. 31, 1997.
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