References in Text
This Act, referred to in provision preceding par. (1), means Pub. L. 91–121, Nov. 19, 1969, 83 Stat. 204, as amended. Provisions authorizing the appropriation of funds are not classified to the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.
Riot Control Agents
Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title XII, § 1232, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3468, provided that:
“(a)Restatement of Policy.—
It is the policy of the United States that riot control agents are not chemical weapons and that the President may authorize their use as legitimate, legal, and non-lethal alternatives to the use of force that, as provided in Executive Order No. 11850 (40 Fed. Reg. 16187)
[set out below] and consistent with the resolution of ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention, may be employed by members of the Armed Forces in war in defensive military modes to save lives, including the illustrative purposes cited in Executive Order No. 11850.
“(b) Report Required.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 2006], the President shall submit to Congress a report on the use of riot control agents by members of the Armed Forces.
“(2)Content.—The report required by paragraph (1) shall include—
a description of all regulations, doctrines, training materials, and any other information related to the use of riot control agents by members of the Armed Forces;
a description of how the material described in subparagraph (A) is consistent with United States policy on the use of riot control agents;
a description of the availability of riot control agents, and the means to use them, to members of the Armed Forces, including members of the Armed Forces deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan;
a description of the frequency and circumstances of the use of riot control agents by members of the Armed Forces since January 1, 1992, and a summary of views held by commanders of United States combatant commands as to the utility of the use of riot control agents by members of the Armed Forces when compared with alternatives;
a general description of steps taken or planned to be taken by the Department of Defense to clarify the circumstances under which riot control agents may be used by members of the Armed Forces; and
a brief explanation of the continuing validity of Executive Order No. 11850 [set out below] under United States law.
The report required by paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.
“(c)Definitions.—In this section:
“(1)Chemical weapons convention.—
The term ‘Chemical Weapons Convention’ means the Convention on the Prohibitions of Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, with annexes, done at Paris, January 13, 1993, and entered into force April 29, 1997 (T. Doc. 103–21).
“(2)Resolution of ratification of the chemical weapons convention.—
The term ‘resolution of ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention’ means S. Res. 75, 105th Congress, agreed to April 24, 1997, advising and consenting to the ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.”
Chemical Munitions Transportation From Okinawa to the United States
Pub. L. 91–672, § 13, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2055, provided that:
“No funds authorized or appropriated pursuant to this or any other law may be used to transport chemical munitions from the Island of Okinawa to the United States. Such funds as are necessary for the detoxification or destruction of the above described chemical munitions are hereby authorized and shall be used for the detoxification or destruction of chemical munitions only outside the United States. For purposes of this section, the term ‘United States’ means the several States and the District of Columbia.”
Ex. Ord. No. 11850. Renunciation of Certain Uses in War of Chemical Herbicides and Riot Control Agents
Ex. Ord. No. 11850, Apr. 8, 1975, 40 F.R. 16187, provided:
The United States renounces, as a matter of national policy, first use of herbicides in war except use, under regulations applicable to their domestic use, for control of vegetation within U.S. bases and installations or around their immediate defensive perimeters, and first use of riot control agents in war except in defensive military modes to save lives such as:
(a) Use of riot control agents in riot control situations in areas under direct and distinct U.S. military control, to include controlling rioting prisoners of war.
(b) Use of riot control agents in situations in which civilians are used to mask or screen attacks and civilian casualties can be reduced or avoided.
(c) Use of riot control agents in rescue missions in remotely isolated areas, of downed aircrews and passengers, and escaping prisoners.
(d) Use of riot control agents in rear echelon areas outside the zone of immediate combat to protect convoys from civil disturbances, terrorists and paramilitary organizations.
I have determined that the provisions and procedures prescribed by this Order are necessary to ensure proper implementation and observance of such national policy.
NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America by the Constitution and laws of the United States and as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. The Secretary of Defense shall take all necessary measures to ensure that the use by the Armed Forces of the United States of any riot control agents and chemical herbicides in war is prohibited unless such use has Presidential approval, in advance.
Sec. 2. The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe the rules and regulations he deems necessary to ensure that the national policy herein announced shall be observed by the Armed Forces of the United States.