The Secretary, acting through the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration, is authorized to train, employ, and utilize surface transportation security inspectors.
The Secretary shall use surface transportation security inspectors to assist surface transportation carriers, operators, owners, entities, and facilities to enhance their security against terrorist attack and other security threats and to assist the Secretary in enforcing applicable surface transportation security regulations and directives.
Surface transportation security inspectors employed pursuant to this section shall be authorized such powers and delegated such responsibilities as the Secretary determines appropriate, subject to subsection (e).
The Secretary shall require that surface transportation security inspectors have relevant transportation experience and other security and inspection qualifications, as determined appropriate.
Surface transportation inspectors shall be prohibited from issuing fines to public transportation agencies, as defined in subchapter III, for violations of the Department’s regulations or orders except through the process described in paragraph (2).
The Secretary shall not initiate civil enforcement actions for violations of administrative and procedural requirements pertaining to the application for, and expenditure of, funds awarded under transportation security grant programs under this Act.
The Secretary shall ensure that the mission of the surface transportation security inspectors is consistent with any relevant risk assessments required by this Act or completed by the Department, the modal plans required under section 114(t)  of title 49, the Memorandum of Understanding between the Department and the Department of Transportation on Roles and Responsibilities, dated September 28, 2004, and any and all subsequent annexes to this Memorandum of Understanding, and other relevant documents setting forth the Department’s transportation security strategy, as appropriate.
Not later than September 30, 2008, the Department of Homeland Security Inspector General shall transmit a report to the appropriate congressional committees on the performance and effectiveness of surface transportation security inspectors, whether there is a need for additional inspectors, and other recommendations.