Whenever prior to April 15 in any calendar year the Secretary determines that the total supply of wheat in the marketing year beginning in the next succeeding calendar year will, in the absence of a marketing quota program, likely be excessive, the Secretary shall proclaim that a national marketing quota for wheat shall be in effect for such marketing year and for either the following marketing year or the following two marketing years, if the Secretary determines and declares in such proclamation that a two- or three-year marketing quota program is necessary to effectuate the policy of the chapter.
If a national marketing quota for wheat has been proclaimed for any marketing year, the Secretary shall determine and proclaim the amount of the national marketing quota for such marketing year not earlier than January 1 or later than April 15 of the calendar year preceding the year in which such marketing year begins. The amount of the national marketing quota for wheat for any marketing year shall be an amount of wheat which the Secretary estimates (i) will be utilized during such marketing year for human consumption in the United States as food, food products, and beverages, composed wholly or partly of wheat, (ii) will be utilized during such marketing year in the United States for seed, (iii) will be exported either in the form of wheat or products thereof, and (iv) will be utilized during such marketing year in the United States as livestock (including poultry) feed, excluding the estimated quantity of wheat which will be utilized for such purpose as a result of the substitution of wheat for feed grains under section 1339c of this title; less (A) an amount of wheat equal to the estimated imports of wheat into the United States during such marketing year and, (B) if the stocks of wheat owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation are determined by the Secretary to be excessive, an amount of wheat determined by the Secretary to be a desirable reduction in such marketing year in such stocks to achieve the policy of the chapter: Provided, That if the Secretary determines that the total stocks of wheat in the Nation are insufficient to assure an adequate carryover for the next succeeding marketing year, the national marketing quota otherwise determined shall be increased by the amount the Secretary determines to be necessary to assure an adequate carryover: And provided further, That the national marketing quota for wheat for any marketing year shall be not less than one billion bushels.
If, after the proclamation of a national marketing quota for wheat for any marketing year, the Secretary has reason to believe that, because of a national emergency or because of a material increase in the demand for wheat, the national marketing quota should be terminated or the amount thereof increased, he shall cause an immediate investigation to be made to determine whether such action is necessary in order to meet such emergency or increase in the demand for wheat. If, on the basis of such investigation, the Secretary finds that such action is necessary, he shall immediately proclaim such finding and the amount of any such increase found by him to be necessary and thereupon such national marketing quota shall be so increased or terminated. In case any national marketing quota is increased under this subsection, the Secretary shall provide for such increase by increasing acreage allotments established under this subpart by a uniform percentage.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Secretary shall proclaim a national marketing quota for the crops of wheat planted for harvest in the calendar years 1966 through 1970, and farm marketing quotas shall not be in effect for such crops of wheat.