8 U.S. Code § 1481 - Loss of nationality by native-born or naturalized citizen; voluntary action; burden of proof; presumptions
This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original a reference to this Act, meaning act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, known as the Immigration and Nationality Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.
1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–525, § 9(hh), substituted “A person” for “From and after the effective date of this chapter a person”.
1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–653, § 18(a), as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, § 8(m)(1), inserted “voluntarily performing any of the following acts with the intention of relinquishing United States nationality” after “his nationality by”.
Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–653, § 18(b), substituted “or upon an application filed by a duly authorized agent, after having attained the age of eighteen years” for “upon an application filed in his behalf by a parent, guardian, or duly authorized agent, or through the naturalization of a parent having legal custody of such person:
Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–653, § 18(c), inserted “, after having attained the age of eighteen years” after “political subdivision thereof”.
Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–653, § 18(d), as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, § 8(m)(2), substituted “if (A) such armed forces are engaged in hostilities against the United States, or (B) such persons serve as a commissioned or non-commissioned officer; or” for “unless, prior to such entry or service, such entry or service is specifically authorized in writing by the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense:
Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 99–653, § 18(e), (f), as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, § 8(m)(3), inserted “after attaining the age of eighteen years” after “political subdivision thereof,” in subpars. (A) and (B).
Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 99–653, § 19, as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, § 8(n), redesignated former subsec. (c) as (b) and substituted “Any” for “Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, any”, and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “Any person who commits or performs any act specified in subsection (a) of this section shall be conclusively presumed to have done so voluntarily and without having been subjected to duress of any kind, if such person at the time of the act was a national of the state in which the act was performed and had been physically present in such state for a period or periods totaling ten years or more immediately prior to such act.”
1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–116 struck out “(a)” designation as added by section 4 of Pub. L. 95–432, which was not executed since it would have resulted in a subsec. (a) designation of “(a)(a)”, and substituted in par. (1) “special immigrant” for “nonquota immigrant”.
1978—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 95–432, §§ 2, 4, redesignated par. (6) as (5). Former par. (5), which dealt with expatriation of persons who voted in a political election in a foreign state or participated in an election or plebiscite to determine sovereignty over foreign territory, was struck out.
Subsec. (a)(6), (7). Pub. L. 95–432, § 4, redesignated pars. (7) and (9) as (6) and (7), respectively. Former pars. (6) and (7) redesignated (5) and (6), respectively.
Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 95–432, § 2, struck out par. (8) which dealt with expatriation of persons who were dismissed or dishonorably discharged as result of deserting the military, air, or naval forces of the United States in time of war.
Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 95–432, § 4, redesignated par. (9) as (7).
1976—Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 94–412 struck out par. (10) which dealt with the expatriation of persons who remained outside of the jurisdiction of the United States in time of war or national emergency to avoid service in the military.
1961—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87–301 added subsec. (c).
1954—Subsec. (a)(9). Act Sept. 3, 1954, provided for forfeiture of citizenship of persons advocating the overthrow of the Government by force or violence.
Amendment by section 8(m), (n) of Pub. L. 100–525 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–653, see section 309(b)(15) of Pub. L. 102–232, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments note under section 1101 of this title.
Act Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1256, § 1, 68 Stat. 1146, provided:
Amendment by Pub. L. 94–412 not to affect any action taken or proceeding pending at the time of amendment, see section 501(h) of Pub. L. 94–412, set out as a note under section 1601 of Title 50, War and National Defense.
For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.
R.S. § 1999 provided that: “Whereas the right of expatriation is a natural and inherent right of all people, indispensable to the enjoyment of the rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and whereas in the recognition of this principle this Government has freely received emigrants from all nations, and invested them with the rights of citizenship; and whereas it is claimed that such American citizens, with their descendants, are subjects of foreign states, owing allegiance to the governments thereof; and whereas it is necessary to the maintenance of public peace that this claim of foreign allegiance should be promptly and finally disavowed: Therefore any declaration, instruction, opinion, order, or decision of any officer of the United States which denies, restricts, impairs, or questions the right of expatriation, is declared inconsistent with the fundamental principles of the Republic.”
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