Subjecting people to biological experiments without consent, when perpetrated in an armed conflict, is a war crime punishable by the International Criminal Court. A prosecution for biological experiments must show the following elements:
- One or more persons were subjected to a particular biological experiment,
- the experiment seriously endangered the physical or mental health or integrity of the victims,
- the intent of the experiment was not medically justified nor in the interest of the victim,
- the victims were protected under the Geneva Conventions of 1949,
- the conduct was associated with an international armed conflict.