An individual whose deposition, or sworn out-of-court testimony, is taken during the discovery process. A similar and sometimes interchangeable term is an affiant, someone who also swears to a declaration of written facts, which is called an affidavit.
A deponent can produce a deposition under different procedures of both civil law and criminal law. The main rules that guide the process of taking a deposition from a deponent are Rule 30 and Rule 31 under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure as well as Rule 15 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.
[Last updated in June of 2020 by the Wex Definitions Team]