26 CFR § 1.199A-8 - Deduction for income attributable to domestic production activities of specified agricultural or horticultural cooperatives.

§ 1.199A-8 Deduction for income attributable to domestic production activities of specified agricultural or horticultural cooperatives.

(a) Overview—(1) In general. This section provides rules relating to the deduction for income attributable to domestic production activities of a specified agricultural or horticultural cooperative (Specified Cooperative). This paragraph (a) provides an overview and definitions of certain terms. Paragraph (b) of this section provides rules explaining the steps a nonexempt Specified Cooperative performs to calculate its section 199A(g) deduction and includes definitions of relevant terms. Paragraph (c) of this section provides rules explaining the steps an exempt Specified Cooperative performs to calculate its section 199A(g) deduction. Paragraph (d) of this section provides rules for Specified Cooperatives passing through the section 199A(g) deduction to patrons. Paragraph (e) of this section provides examples that illustrate the provisions of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. Paragraph (f) of this section provides guidance for Specified Cooperatives that are partners in a partnership. Paragraph (g) of this section provides guidance on the recapture of a claimed section 199A(g) deduction. Paragraph (h) of this section provides effective dates. For additional rules addressing an expanded affiliated group (EAG), to which the principles of this section apply, see § 1.199A–12. The provisions of this section apply solely for purposes of section 199A of the Internal Revenue Code (Code).

(2) Specified Cooperative—(i) In general. Specified Cooperative means a cooperative to which Part I of subchapter T of chapter 1 of the Code applies and which—

(A) Manufactures, produces, grows, or extracts (MPGE) in whole or significant part within the United States any agricultural or horticultural product, or

(B) Is engaged in the marketing of agricultural or horticultural products that have been MPGE in whole or significant part within the United States by the patrons of the cooperative.

(C) See § 1.199A–9 for rules to determine if a Specified Cooperative has MPGE an agricultural or horticultural product in whole or significant part within the United States.

(ii) Types of Specified Cooperatives. A Specified Cooperative that is qualified as a farmer's cooperative organization under section 521 is an exempt Specified Cooperative, while a Specified Cooperative not so qualified is a nonexempt Specified Cooperative.

(3) Patron is defined in § 1.1388–1(e).

(4) Agricultural or horticultural products are agricultural, horticultural, viticultural, and dairy products, livestock and the products thereof, the products of poultry and bee raising, the edible products of forestry, and any and all products raised or produced on farms and processed or manufactured products thereof within the meaning of the Cooperative Marketing Act of 1926, 44 Stat. 802 (1926). Agricultural or horticultural products also include aquatic products that are farmed. Some examples of agricultural or horticultural products include, but are not limited to, fruits, grains, oilseeds, rice, vegetables, legumes, grasses (including hay), plants of all kinds, flowers (including hops), seeds, tobacco, cotton, sugar cane and sugar beets. Some examples of livestock products include, but are not limited to, wool, fur, hides, eggs, down, honey, and silk. Some examples of edible forestry products include, but are not limited to, fruits, nuts, berries and mushrooms. Some examples of aquatic products include, but are not limited to, fish, crustaceans, shellfish and seaweed. In addition, agricultural or horticultural products include fertilizer, diesel fuel, and other supplies (for example, seed, feed, herbicides, and pesticides) used in agricultural or horticultural production that are MPGE by a Specified Cooperative. Agricultural or horticultural products, however, do not include intangible property other than when incorporated into a tangible agricultural or horticultural product (other than as provided in the exception in § 1.199A–9(b)(2)). Intangible property for this purpose includes, for example, the rights to MPGE and sell an agricultural or horticultural product with certain characteristics protected by a patent, or the rights to a trademark or tradename. This exclusion of intangible property does not apply to intangible characteristics of any particular agricultural or horticultural product. For example, gross receipts from the sale of different varieties of oranges would be considered from the disposition of agricultural or horticultural products. However, gross receipts from the license of the right to produce and sell a certain variety of an orange would be considered separate from the orange and not from an agricultural or horticultural product.

(b) Steps for a nonexempt Specified Cooperative in calculating deduction—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, this paragraph (b) applies only to nonexempt Specified Cooperatives.

(2) Step 1—Gross receipts and related deductions—(i) Identify. To determine the section 199A(g) deduction, a Specified Cooperative first identifies its patronage and nonpatronage gross receipts and related cost of goods sold (COGS), deductible expenses, W–2 wages, etc. (deductions) and allocates them between patronage and nonpatronage. A single definition for the term patronage and nonpatronage is found in § 1.1388–1(f).

(ii) Applicable gross receipts and deductions. Except as described in this paragraph (b)(ii), for all purposes of the section 199A(g) deduction, a Specified Cooperative can use only patronage gross receipts and related deductions to calculate qualified production activities income (QPAI) as defined in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section, oil-related QPAI as defined in paragraph (b)(7)(ii) of this section, the W–2 wage limitation in paragraph (b)(5)(ii)(B) of this section, or taxable income as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(ii)(C) of this section. A Specified Cooperative cannot use its nonpatronage gross receipts and related deductions to calculate its section 199A(g) deduction, other than treating all of its nonpatronage gross receipts as patronage non-DPGR for purposes of applying the de minimis rules in § 1.199A–9(c)(3). If a Specified Cooperative treats all nonpatronage gross receipts as DPGR under § 1.199A–9(c)(3)(i), then a Specified Cooperative shall also treat its deductions related to the nonpatronage gross receipts as patronage in calculating QPAI, oil-related QPAI, the W–2 wage limitation, or taxable income for purposes of the section 199A(g) deduction.

(iii) Gross receipts are the Specified Cooperative's receipts for the taxable year that are recognized under the Specified Cooperative's methods of accounting used for Federal income tax purposes for the taxable year. See § 1.199A–12 if the gross receipts are recognized in an intercompany transaction within the meaning of § 1.1502–13. Gross receipts include total sales (net of returns and allowances) and all amounts received for services. In addition, gross receipts include any income from investments and from incidental or outside sources. For example, gross receipts include interest (except interest under section 103 but including original issue discount), dividends, rents, royalties, and annuities, regardless of whether the amounts are derived in the ordinary course of the Specified Cooperative's trade or business. Gross receipts are not reduced by COGS or by the cost of property sold if such property is described in section 1221(a)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5). Finally, gross receipts do not include amounts received by the Specified Cooperative with respect to sales tax or other similar state or local taxes if, under the applicable state or local law, the tax is legally imposed on the purchaser of the good or service and the Specified Cooperative merely collects and remits the tax to the taxing authority. If, in contrast, the tax is imposed on the Specified Cooperative under the applicable law, then gross receipts include the amounts received that are allocable to the payment of such tax.

(3) Step 2—Determine gross receipts that are DPGR—(i) In general. A Specified Cooperative examines its patronage gross receipts to determine which of these are DPGR. A Specified Cooperative does not use nonpatronage gross receipts to determine DPGR.

(ii) DPGR are the gross receipts of the Specified Cooperative that are derived from any lease, rental, license, sale, exchange, or other disposition of an agricultural or horticultural product that is MPGE by the Specified Cooperative or its patrons in whole or significant part within the United States. DPGR does not include gross receipts derived from services or the lease, rental, license, sale, exchange, or other disposition of land unless a de minimis or other exception applies. See § 1.199A–9 for additional rules on determining if gross receipts are DPGR.

(4) Step 3—Determine QPAI—(i) In general. A Specified Cooperative determines QPAI from patronage DPGR and patronage deductions identified in paragraphs (b)(3)(ii) and (b)(2)(i) of this section, respectively. A Specified Cooperative does not use nonpatronage gross receipts or deductions to determine QPAI.

(ii) QPAI for the taxable year means an amount equal to the excess (if any) of—

(A) DPGR for the taxable year, over

(B) The sum of—

(1) COGS that are allocable to DPGR, and

(2) Other expenses, losses, or deductions (other than the section 199A(g) deduction) that are properly allocable to DPGR.

(C) QPAI computational rules. QPAI is computed without taking into account the section 199A(g) deduction or any deduction allowed under section 1382(b). See § 1.199A–10 for additional rules on calculating QPAI.

(5) Step 4—Calculate deduction—(i) In general. From QPAI and taxable income, a Specified Cooperative calculates its section 199A(g) deduction as provided in paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Deduction—(A) In general. A Specified Cooperative is allowed a deduction equal to 9 percent of the lesser of—

(1) QPAI of the Specified Cooperative for the taxable year, or

(2) Taxable income of the Specified Cooperative for the taxable year.

(B) W–2 wage limitation. The deduction allowed under paragraph (b)(5)(ii)(A) of this section for any taxable year cannot exceed 50 percent of the patronage W–2 wages attributable to DPGR for the taxable year. See § 1.199A–11 for additional rules on calculating the patronage W–2 wage limitation.

(C) Taxable income. Taxable income is defined in section 63, and adjusted under section 1382 and § 1.1382–1 and § 1.1382–2. For purposes of determining the amount of the deduction allowed under paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section, taxable income is limited to taxable income and related deductions from patronage sources, other than as allowed under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section. Taxable income is computed without taking into account the section 199A(g) deduction or any deduction allowable under section 1382(b). Patronage net operating losses (NOLs) reduce taxable income in the amount that the Specified Cooperative would use to reduce taxable income (no lower than zero) before using the section 199A(g) deduction, but do not reduce taxable income that is the result of not taking into account any deduction allowable under section 1382(b).

(6) Use of patronage section 199A(g) deduction. Except as provided in § 1.199A–12(c)(2) related to the rules for EAGs, the patronage section 199A(g) deduction cannot create or increase a patronage or nonpatronage NOL or the amount of a patronage or nonpatronage NOL carryover or carryback, if applicable, in accordance with section 172. A patronage section 199A(g) deduction can be applied only against patronage income and deductions. A patronage section 199A(g) deduction that is not used in the appropriate taxable year is lost. To the extent that a Specified Cooperative passes through the section 199A(g) deduction to patrons and appropriately adjusts the section 1382 deduction under § 1.199A–8(d), the amount passed through is not considered to create or increase a patronage or nonpatronage NOL or the amount of a patronage or nonpatronage NOL carryover or carryback, if applicable, in accordance with section 172.

(7) Special rules for nonexempt Specified Cooperatives that have oil-related QPAI—(i) Reduction of section 199A(g) deduction. If a Specified Cooperative has oil-related QPAI for any taxable year, the amount otherwise allowable as a deduction under paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section must be reduced by 3 percent of the least of—

(A) Oil-related QPAI of the Specified Cooperative for the taxable year,

(B) QPAI of the Specified Cooperative for the taxable year, or

(C) Taxable income of the Specified Cooperative for the taxable year.

(ii) Oil-related QPAI means, for any taxable year, the patronage QPAI that is attributable to the production, refining, processing, transportation, or distribution of oil, gas, or any primary product thereof (within the meaning of section 927(a)(2)(C), as in effect before its repeal) during such taxable year. Oil-related QPAI for any taxable year is an amount equal to the excess (if any) of patronage DPGR derived from the production, refining or processing of oil, gas, or any primary product thereof (oil-related DPGR) over the sum of—

(A) COGS of the Specified Cooperative that is allocable to such receipts; and

(B) Other expenses, losses, or deductions (other than the section 199A(g) deduction) that are properly allocable to such receipts.

(iii) Special rule for patronage oil-related DPGR. Oil-related DPGR does not include gross receipts derived from the transportation or distribution of oil, gas, or any primary product thereof. However, to the extent that the nonexempt Specified Cooperative treats gross receipts derived from transportation or distribution of oil, gas, or any primary product thereof as part of DPGR under § 1.199A–9(c)(3)(i), or under § 1.199A–9(j)(3)(i)(B), then the Specified Cooperative must treat those patronage gross receipts as oil-related DGPR.

(iv) Oil includes oil recovered from both conventional and non-conventional recovery methods, including crude oil, shale oil, and oil recovered from tar/oil sands. The primary product from oil includes all products derived from the destructive distillation of oil, including volatile products, light oils such as motor fuel and kerosene, distillates such as naphtha, lubricating oils, greases and waxes, and residues such as fuel oil. The primary product from gas means all gas and associated hydrocarbon components from gas wells or oil wells, whether recovered at the lease or upon further processing, including natural gas, condensates, liquefied petroleum gases such as ethane, propane, and butane, and liquid products such as natural gasoline. The primary products from oil and gas provided in this paragraph (b)(7)(iv) are not intended to represent either the only primary products from oil or gas, or the only processes from which primary products may be derived under existing and future technologies. Examples of non-primary products include, but are not limited to, petrochemicals, medicinal products, insecticides, and alcohols.

(c) Exempt Specified Cooperatives—(1) In general. This paragraph (c) applies only to exempt Specified Cooperatives.

(2) Two section 199A(g) deductions. The Specified Cooperative must calculate two separate section 199A(g) deductions, one patronage sourced and the other nonpatronage sourced, unless a Specified Cooperative treats all of its nonpatronage gross receipts and related deductions as patronage as described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section. Patronage and nonpatronage gross receipts, related COGS that are allocable to DPGR, and other expenses, losses, or deductions (other than the section 199A(g) deduction) that are properly allocable to DPGR (deductions), DPGR, QPAI, NOLs, W–2 wages, etc. are not netted to calculate these two separate section 199A(g) deductions.

(3) Exempt Specified Cooperative patronage section 199A(g) deduction. The Specified Cooperative calculates its patronage section 199A(g) deduction following steps 1 through 4 in paragraphs (b)(2) through (5) of this section as if it were a nonexempt Specified Cooperative.

(4) Exempt Specified Cooperative nonpatronage section 199A(g) deduction—(i) In general. The Specified Cooperative calculates its nonpatronage section 199A(g) deduction following steps 2 through 4 in paragraphs (b)(2) through (5) of this section using only nonpatronage gross receipts and related nonpatronage deductions, unless a Specified Cooperative treats all of its nonpatronage gross receipts and related deductions as patronage as described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section. For purposes of determining the amount of the nonpatronage section 199A(g) deduction allowed under paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section, taxable income is limited to taxable income and related deductions from nonpatronage sources. Nonpatronage NOLs reduce taxable income. Taxable income is computed without taking into account the section 199A(g) deduction or any deduction allowable under section 1382(c).

(ii) Use of nonpatronage section 199A(g) deduction. Except as provided in § 1.199A–12(c)(2) related to the rules for EAGs, the nonpatronage section 199A(g) deduction cannot create or increase a nonpatronage NOL or the amount of nonpatronage NOL carryover or carryback, if applicable, in accordance with section 172. A Specified Cooperative cannot pass through its nonpatronage section 199A(g) deduction under paragraph (d) of this section and can apply the nonpatronage section 199A(g) deduction only against its nonpatronage income and deductions. As is the case for the patronage section 199A(g) deduction, the nonpatronage section 199A(g) deduction that a Specified Cooperative does not use in the appropriate taxable year is lost.

(d) Discretion to pass through deduction—(1) Permitted amount (i) In general. A Specified Cooperative may, at its discretion, pass through all, some, or none of its patronage section 199A(g) deduction to all patrons. Only eligible taxpayers as defined in section 199A(g)(2)(D) may claim the section 199A(g) deduction that is passed through. A Specified Cooperative member of a federated cooperative may pass through the patronage section 199A(g) deduction it receives from the federated cooperative to its member patrons.

(ii) Specified Cooperative identifies eligibility of patron. If a Specified Cooperative determines that a patron is not an eligible taxpayer, then the Specified Cooperative may, at its discretion, retain any of the patronage section 199A(g) deduction attributable to the patron that would otherwise be passed through and lost under the general rule in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section.

(2) Amount of deduction being passed through—(i) In general. A Specified Cooperative is permitted to pass through an amount equal to the portion of the Specified Cooperative's section 199A(g) deduction that is allowed with respect to the portion of the cooperative's QPAI that is attributable to the qualified payments the Specified Cooperative distributed to the patron during the taxable year and identified on the notice required in § 1.199A–7(f)(3) on an attachment to or on the Form 1099–PATR, Taxable Distributions Received From Cooperatives (Form 1099–PATR), (or any successor form) issued by the Specified Cooperative to the patron, unless otherwise provided by the instructions to the Form 1099–PATR. The notice requirement to pass through the section 199A(g) deduction is in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(ii) Qualified payment means any amount of a patronage dividend or per-unit retain allocation, as described in section 1385(a)(1) or (3) received by a patron from a Specified Cooperative that is attributable to the portion of the Specified Cooperative's QPAI, for which the cooperative is allowed a section 199A(g) deduction. For this purpose, patronage dividends include any advances on patronage and per-unit retain allocations include per-unit retains paid in money during the taxable year.

(3) Notice requirement to pass through deduction. A Specified Cooperative must identify in a written notice the amount of the section 199A(g) deduction being passed through to its patrons. This written notice must be mailed by the Specified Cooperative to the patron no later than the 15th day of the ninth month following the close of the taxable year of the Specified Cooperative. The Specified Cooperative may use the same written notice, if any, that it uses to notify the patron of the patron's respective allocations of patronage distributions, or may use a separate timely written notice(s) to comply with this section. The Specified Cooperative must report the amount of section 199A(g) deduction passed through to the patron on an attachment to or on the Form 1099–PATR (or any successor form) issued by the Specified Cooperative to the patron, unless otherwise provided by the instructions to the Form 1099–PATR.

(4) Section 199A(g) deduction allocated to eligible taxpayer. An eligible taxpayer may deduct the lesser of the section 199A(g) deduction identified on the notice described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section or the eligible taxpayer's taxable income in the taxable year in which the eligible taxpayer receives the timely written notice described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section. For this purpose, the eligible taxpayer's taxable income is determined without taking into account the section 199A(g) deduction being passed through to the eligible taxpayer and after taking into account any section 199A(a) deduction allowed to the eligible taxpayer. Any section 199A(g) deduction the eligible taxpayer does not use in the taxable year in which the eligible taxpayer receives the notice (received on or before the due date of the Form 1099–PATR) is lost and cannot be carried forward or back to other taxable years. The taxable income limitation for the section 199A(a) deduction set forth in section 199A(b)(3) and § 1.199A–1(a) and (b) does not apply to limit the deductibility of the section 199A(g) deduction passed through to the eligible taxpayer.

(5) Special rules for eligible taxpayers that are Specified Cooperatives. Any Specified Cooperative that receives a section 199A(g) deduction as an eligible taxpayer can take the deduction against patronage gross income and related deductions to the extent it relates to its patronage gross income and related deductions. Only a patron that is an exempt Specified Cooperative may take a section 199A(g) deduction passed through from another Specified Cooperative if the deduction relates to the patron Specified Cooperative's nonpatronage gross income and related deductions.

(6) W–2 wage limitation. The W–2 wage limitation described in paragraph (b)(5)(ii)(B) of this section is applied at the cooperative level whether or not the Specified Cooperative chooses to pass through some or all of the section 199A(g) deduction. Any section 199A(g) deduction that has been passed through by a Specified Cooperative to an eligible taxpayer is not subject to the W–2 wage limitation a second time at the eligible taxpayer's level.

(7) Specified Cooperative denied section 1382 deduction for portion of qualified payments. A Specified Cooperative must reduce its section 1382 deduction by an amount equal to the portion of any qualified payment that is attributable to the Specified Cooperative's section 199A(g) deduction passed through. This means the Specified Cooperative must reduce its section 1382 deduction in an amount equal to the section 199A(g) deduction passed through.

(8) No double counting. A qualified payment received by a Specified Cooperative that is a patron of a Specified Cooperative is not taken into account by the patron for purposes of section 199A(g).

(e) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) of this section. The examples of this section apply solely for purposes of section 199A of the Code. Assume for each example that the Specified Cooperative sent all required notices to patrons on or before the due date of the Form 1099–PATR.

(1) Example 1. Nonexempt Specified Cooperative calculating section 199A(g) deduction.

(i) C is a grain marketing nonexempt Specified Cooperative, with $5,250,000 in gross receipts during 2020 from the sale of grain grown by its patrons. C paid $4,000,000 to its patrons at the time the grain was delivered in the form of per-unit retain allocations and another $1,000,000 in patronage dividends after the close of the 2020 taxable year. C has other expenses of $250,000 during 2020, including $100,000 of W–2 wages.

(ii) C has DPGR of $5,250,000 and QPAI as defined in § 1.199A–8(b)(4)(ii) of $5,000,000 for 2020. C's section 199A(g) deduction is equal to the least of 9% of QPAI ($450,000), 9% of taxable income ($450,000), or 50% of W–2 wages ($50,000). C passes through the entire section 199A(g) deduction to its patrons. Accordingly, C reduces its $5,000,000 deduction allowable under section 1382(b) (relating to the $1,000,000 patronage dividends and $4,000,000 per-unit retain allocations) by $50,000.

(2) Example 2. Nonexempt Specified Cooperative determines amounts included in QPAI and taxable income.

(i) C, a nonexempt Specified Cooperative, offers harvesting services and markets the grain of patrons and nonpatrons. C had gross receipts from harvesting services and grain sales, and expenses related to both. All of C's harvesting services were performed for their patrons, and 75% of the grain sales were for patrons.

(ii) C identifies 75% of the gross receipts and related expenses from grain sales and 100% of the gross receipts and related expenses from the harvesting services as patronage sourced. C identifies 25% of the gross receipts and related expenses from grain sales as nonpatronage sourced.

(iii) C does not include any nonpatronage gross receipts or related expenses from grain sales in either QPAI or taxable income when calculating the section 199A(g) deduction. C's QPAI includes the patronage DPGR, less related expenses (allocable COGS, wages and other expenses). C's taxable income includes the patronage gross receipts, whether such gross receipts are DPGR or non-DPGR.

(iv) C allocates and reports patronage dividends to its harvesting patrons and grain marketing patrons. C also notifies its grain marketing patrons (in accordance with the requirements of § 1.199A–7(f)(3)) that their patronage dividends are qualified payments used in C's section 199A(g) computation. The patrons must use this information for purposes of computing their section 199A(b)(7) reduction to their section 199A(a) deduction (see § 1.199A–7(f)).

(3) Example 3. Nonexempt Specified Cooperative with patronage and nonpatronage gross receipts and related deductions.

(i) C, a nonexempt Specified Cooperative, markets corn grown by its patrons in the United States. For the calendar year ending December 31, 2020, C derives gross receipts from the marketing activity of $1,800. Such gross receipts qualify as DPGR. Assume C has $800 of expenses (including COGS, other expenses, and $400 of W–2 wages) properly allocable to DPGR, and a $1,000 deduction allowed under section 1382(b). C also derives gross receipts from nonpatronage sources in the amount of $500, and has nonpatronage deductions in the amount of $400 (including COGS, other expenses, and $100 of W–2 wages).

(ii) C does not include any gross receipts or deductions from nonpatronage sources when calculating the deduction under paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section. C's QPAI and taxable income both equal $1,000 ($1,800−800). C's deduction under paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section for the taxable year is equal to $90 (9% of $1,000), which does not exceed $200 (50% of C's W–2 wages properly allocable to DPGR). C passes through $90 of the deduction to patrons and C reduces its section 1382(b) deduction by $90.

(4) Example 4. Exempt Specified Cooperative with patronage and nonpatronage income and deductions.

(i) C, an exempt Specified Cooperative, markets corn MPGE by its patrons in the United States. For the calendar year ending December 31, 2020, C derives gross receipts from the marketing activity of $1,800. For this activity assume C has $800 of expenses (including COGS, other expenses, and $400 of W–2 wages) properly allocable to DPGR, and a $1,000 deduction under section 1382(b). C also derives gross receipts from nonpatronage sources in the amount of $500. Assume the gross receipts qualify as DPGR. For this activity assume C has $400 of expenses (including COGS, other expenses, and $20 of W–2 wages) properly allocable to DPGR and no deduction under section 1382(c).

(ii) C calculates two separate section 199A(g) deduction amounts. C's section 199A(g) deduction attributable to patronage sources is the same as the deduction calculated by the nonexempt Specified Cooperative in Example 3 in paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(iii) C's nonpatronage QPAI and taxable income is equal to $100 ($500−$400). C's deduction under paragraph (c)(4) of this section that directs C to use paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section attributable to nonpatronage sources is equal to $9 (9% of $100), which does not exceed $10 (50% of C's W–2 wages properly allocable to DPGR). C cannot pass through any of the nonpatronage section 199A(g) deduction amount to its patrons.

(5) Example 5. NOL.

(i) In 2021, E, a nonexempt Specified Cooperative that is not part of an EAG, generates QPAI and taxable income of $100 (without taking into account any section 1382(b) deductions, NOLs, or the section 199A(g) deduction). E pays out patronage dividends of $91 that are deductible under section 1382(b). E has an NOL carryover of $500 attributable to losses incurred prior to 2018. While taxable income and QPAI do not take into account the section 1382(b) deduction, taxable income does take into account NOLs. When calculating its section 199A(g) deduction, E must take into account the NOL carryover when calculating taxable income, unless the taxable income is the result of not taking into account any deduction allowable under section 1382(b). In this case $91 of taxable income is the result of not taking into account the deduction allowed under section 1382(b) and the remaining $9 should be reduced by the NOL carryover so that taxable income equals $91. E calculates a section 199A(g) deduction of $8.19 (.09 × $91 (which is the lesser of $100 QPAI or $91 taxable income)).

(ii) E may pass through the entire $8.19 of section 199A(g) deduction to patrons (which will reduce its section 1382(b) deduction from $91 to $82.81). However, if E does not pass the deduction through, paragraph (b)(6) of this section prohibits E from claiming any of the section 199A(g) deduction in 2021.

(iii) If E passes through the deduction to patrons, E's taxable income under section 172(b)(2) for NOL absorption purposes is $9 ($100−$82.81−$9 NOL−$8.19 section 199A(g) deduction). If E does not pass through the deduction, then E's taxable income under section 172(b)(2) for NOL absorption purposes is $9 ($100−$91−$9 NOL).

(iv) Assuming E passes through the deduction to patrons, E would use $9 of the NOL carryover and have a $491 NOL carryover remaining. To the extent E does not pass through the deduction, E would still use $9 of the NOL carryover and have a $491 NOL carryover remaining.

(6) Example 6. Nonexempt Specified Cooperative not passing through the section 199A(g) deduction to patrons.

(i) D, a nonexempt Specified Cooperative, markets corn grown by its patrons within the United States. For its calendar year ended December 31, 2020, D has gross receipts of $1,500,000, all derived from the sale of corn grown by its patrons within the United States. D pays $300,000 for its patrons' corn at the time the grain was delivered in the form of per-unit retain allocations and its W–2 wages (as defined in § 1.199A–11) for 2020 total $300,000. D has no other costs. Patron A is a patron of D. Patron A is a cash basis taxpayer and files Federal income tax returns on a calendar year basis. All corn grown by Patron A in 2020 is sold through D and Patron A is eligible to share in patronage dividends paid by D for that year.

(ii) All of D's gross receipts from the sale of its patrons' corn qualify as DPGR (as defined paragraph (8)(b)(3)(ii) of this section). D's QPAI and taxable income is $1,200,000. D's section 199A(g) deduction for its taxable year 2020 is $108,000 (.09 × $1,200,000). Because this amount is less than 50% of D's W–2 wages, the entire amount is allowed as a section 199A(g) deduction. D decides not to pass any of its section 199A(g) deduction to its patrons. The section 199A(g) deduction of $108,000 is applied to, and reduces, D's taxable income.

(7) Example 7. Nonexempt Specified Cooperative passing through the section 199A(g) deduction to patrons paid a patronage dividend.

(i) The facts are the same as in Example 6 except that D decides to pass its entire section 199A(g) deduction through to its patrons. D declares a patronage dividend for its 2020 taxable year of $900,000, which it pays on March 15, 2021.Pursuant to paragraph (d)(3) of this section, D notifies patrons in written notices that accompany the patronage dividend notification that D is allocating to them the section 199A(g) deduction D is entitled to claim in the calendar year 2020. On March 15, 2021, Patron A receives a $9,000 patronage dividend that is a qualified payment under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section from D. In the notice that accompanies the patronage dividend, Patron A is designated a $1,080 section 199A(g) deduction. Under paragraph (a) of this section, Patron A may claim a $1,080 section 199A(g) deduction for the taxable year ending December 31, 2021, subject to the limitations set forth under paragraph (d)(4) of this section.

(ii) Under paragraph (d)(7) of this section, D is required to reduce its section 1382 deduction of $1,200,000 by the $108,000 section 199A(g) deduction passed through to patrons (whether D pays patronage dividends on book or Federal income tax net earnings). As a consequence, D is entitled to a section 1382 deduction for the taxable year ending December 31, 2020, in the amount of $1,092,000 ($1,200,000−$108,000) and to a section 199A(g) deduction in the amount of $108,000 ($1,200,000 × .09).

(8) Example 8. Nonexempt Specified Cooperative passing through the section 199A(g) deduction to patrons paid a patronage dividend and advances on expected patronage net earnings.

(i) The facts are the same as in Example 6 except that D paid out $500,000 to its patrons as advances on expected patronage net earnings. In 2020, D pays its patrons a $400,000 ($900,000−$500,000 already paid) patronage dividend in cash or a combination of cash and qualified written notices of allocation. Under paragraph (d)(7) of this section and section 1382, D is allowed a deduction of $1,092,000 ($1,200,000−$108,000 section 199A(g) deduction), whether patronage net earnings are distributed on book or Federal income tax net earnings.

(ii) The patrons will have received a gross amount of $1,200,000 in qualified payments under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section from Cooperative D ($300,000 paid as per-unit retain allocations, $500,000 paid during the taxable year as advances, and the additional $400,000 paid as patronage dividends). If D passes through its entire section 199A(g) deduction to its patrons by providing the notice required by paragraph (d)(3) of this section, then the patrons will be allowed a $108,000 section 199A(g) deduction, resulting in a net $1,092,000 taxable distribution from D. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(8) of this section, any of the $1,200,000 received by patrons that are Specified Cooperatives from D is not taken into account for purposes of calculating the patrons' section 199A(g) deduction. Patrons that are not Specified Cooperatives must include those payments in the section 199A(b)(7) reduction when calculating a section 199A(a) deduction as applicable.

(9) Example 9. Intangible property transaction as part of disposition of agricultural or horticultural products. F, a Specified Cooperative, markets patrons' oranges by processing the oranges into orange juice, and then bottling and selling the orange juice to customers. F markets the orange juice under its own brand name, but F also licenses from G, an unrelated third party, the rights to use G's brand name on the bottled orange juice. F's gross receipts from the sale of both brands of orange juice qualify as DPGR, assuming all other requirements of this section are met.

(10) Example 10. Intangible property transaction that is not a disposition of an agricultural or horticultural product. H, a Specified Cooperative, licenses H's brand name to J, an unrelated third party. J purchases oranges, produces orange juice, and then bottles and sells the orange juice to customers. Gross receipts that H derives from the license of the brand name to J are not DPGR from the disposition of an agricultural or horticultural product.

(11) Example 11. Allocation rules when Specified Cooperative retains the section 199A(g) deduction attributable to non-eligible taxpayers. K, a Specified Cooperative, for the taxable year has $200 of taxable income and QPAI ($100 is attributable to business done for patrons that are C corporation patrons and $100 is attributable to business done for patrons that are eligible taxpayers). K calculates an $18 section 199A(g) deduction. K passes through $9 to its patrons that are eligible taxpayers, distributes $191 to patrons in distributions that are deductible under section 1382(b) (including patronage dividends that were paid out in the same amounts to C corporation patrons and eligible taxpayer patrons because the value of their business,$100 each, was the same), and adjusts its deduction under section 1382 by $9 (the amount of the section 199A(g) deduction passed through). K's taxable income after the section 199A deduction and distributions is $0.

(f) Special rule for Specified Cooperative partners. In the case described in section 199A(g)(5)(B), where a Specified Cooperative is a partner in a partnership, the partnership must separately identify and report on the Schedule K–1 of the Form 1065, U.S. Return of Partnership Income (or any successor form) issued to the Specified Cooperative partner the cooperative's share of gross receipts and related deductions, W–2 wages, and COGS, unless otherwise provided by the instructions to the Form. The Specified Cooperative partner determines what gross receipts reported by the partnership qualify as DPGR and includes these gross receipts and related deductions, W–2 wages, and COGS to calculate one section 199A(g) deduction (in the case of a nonexempt Specified Cooperative) or two section 199A(g) deductions (in the case of an exempt Specified Cooperative) using the steps set forth in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. For purposes of determining whether gross receipts are DPGR, the MPGE activities of the Specified Cooperative partner may be attributed to the partnership, and the partnership's MPGE activities may be attributed to the Specified Cooperative partner.

(g) Recapture of section 199A(g) deduction. If the amount of the section 199A(g) deduction that was passed through to eligible taxpayers exceeds the amount allowable as a section 199A(g) deduction as determined on examination or reported on an amended return, then recapture of the excess will occur at the Specified Cooperative level in the taxable year the Specified Cooperative took the excess section 199A(g) deduction.

(h) Applicability date. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(2) of § 1.199A–7, the provisions of this section apply to taxable years beginning after January 19, 2021. Taxpayers, however, may choose to apply the rules of §§ 1.199A–7 through 1.199A–12 for taxable years beginning on or before that date, provided the taxpayers apply the rules in their entirety and in a consistent manner.

[T.D. 9947, 86 FR 5569, Jan. 19, 2021, as amended by 87 FR 68899, Nov. 17, 2022]