26 CFR 1.471-11 - Inventories of manufacturers.

§ 1.471-11 Inventories of manufacturers.

(a)Use of full absorption method of inventory costing. In order to conform as nearly as may be possible to the best accounting practices and to clearly reflect income (as required by section 471 of the Code), both direct and indirect production costs must be taken into account in the computation of inventoriable costs in accordance with the “full absorption” method of inventory costing. Under the full absorption method of inventory costing production costs must be allocated to goods produced during the taxable year, whether sold during the taxable year or in inventory at the close of the taxable year determined in accordance with the taxpayer's method of identifying goods in inventory. Thus, the taxpayer must include as inventoriable costs all direct production costs and, to the extent provided by paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, all indirect production costs. For purposes of this section, the term “financial reports” means financial reports (including consolidated financial statements) to shareholders, partners, beneficiaries or other proprietors and for credit purposes. See also § 1.263A-1T with respect to the treatment of production costs incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, and before January 1, 1994. See also §§ 1.263A-1 and 1.263A-2 with respect to the treatment of production costs incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1993.

(b)Production costs -

(1)In general. Costs are considered to be production costs to the extent that they are incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes. Production costs include direct production costs and fixed and variable indirect production costs.

(2)Direct production costs.

(i) Costs classified as “direct production costs” are generally those costs which are incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes and are components of the cost of either direct material or direct labor. Direct material costs include the cost of those materials which become an integral part of the specific product and those materials which are consumed in the ordinary course of manufacturing and can be identified or associated with particular units or groups of units of that product. See § 1.471-3 for the elements of direct material costs. Direct labor costs include the cost of labor which can be identified or associated with particular units or groups of units of a specific product. The elements of direct labor costs include such items as basic compensation, overtime pay, vacation and holiday pay, sick leave pay (other than payments pursuant to a wage continuation plan under section 105(d)), shift differential, payroll taxes and payments to a supplemental unemployment benefit plan paid or incurred on behalf of employees engaged in direct labor. For the treatment of rework labor, scrap, spoilage costs, and any other costs not specifically described as direct production costs see § 1.471-11(c)(2).

(ii) Under the full absorption method, a taxpayer must take into account all items of direct production cost in his inventoriable costs. Nevertheless, a taxpayer will not be treated as using an incorrect method of inventory costing if he treats any direct production costs as indirect production costs, provided such costs are allocated to the taxpayer's ending inventory to the extent provided by paragraph (d) of this section. Thus, for example, a taxpayer may treat direct labor costs as part of indirect production costs (for example, by use of the conversion cost method), provided all such costs are allocated to ending inventory to the extent provided by paragraph (d) of this section.

(3)Indirect production costs -

(i)In general. The term “indirect production costs” includes all costs which are incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes other than direct production costs (as defined in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph). Indirect production costs may be classified as to kind or type in accordance with acceptable accounting principles so as to enable convenient identification with various production or manufacturing activities or functions and to facilitate reasonable groupings of such costs for purposes of determining unit product costs.

(ii)Fixed and variable classifications. For purposes of this section, fixed indirect production costs are generally those costs which do not vary significantly with changes in the amount of goods produced at any given level of production capacity. These fixed costs may include, among other costs, rent and property taxes on buildings and machinery incident to and necessary for manufacturing operations or processes. On the other hand, variable indirect production costs are generally those costs which do vary significantly with changes in the amount of goods produced at any given level of production capacity. These variable costs may include, among other costs, indirect materials, factory janitorial supplies, and utilities. Where a particular cost contains both fixed and variable elements, these elements should be segregated into fixed and variable classifications to the extent necessary under the taxpayer's method of allocation, such as for the application of the practical capacity concept (as described in paragraph (d) (4) of this section).

(c)Certain indirect and production costs -

(1)General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(3) of this section and in paragraph (d)(6)(v) of § 1.451-3, in order to determine whether indirect production costs referred to in paragraph (b) of this section must be included in a taxpayer's computation of the amount of inventoriable costs, three categories of costs have been provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph. Costs described in subparagraph (2)(i) of this paragraph must be included in the taxpayer's computation of the amount of inventoriable costs, regardless of their treatment by the taxpayer in his financial reports. Costs described in subparagraph (2)(ii) of this paragraph need not enter into the taxpayer's computation of the amount of inventoriable costs, regardless of their treatment by the taxpayer in his financial reports. Costs described in subparagraph (2)(iii) of this paragraph must be included in or excluded from the taxpayer's computation of the amount inventoriable costs in accordance with the treatment of such costs by the taxpayer in his financial reports and generally accepted accounting principles. For the treatment of indirect production costs described in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph in the case of a taxpayer who is not using comparable methods of accounting for such costs for tax and financial reporting see paragraph (c)(3) of this section. For contracts entered into after December 31, 1982, notwithstanding this section, taxpayers who use an inventory method of accounting for extended period long-term contracts (as defined in paragraph (b)(3) of § 1.451-3) for tax purposes may be required to use the cost allocation rules provided in paragraph (d)(6) of § 1.451-3 rather than the cost allocation rules provided in this section. See paragraph (d)(6)(v) of § 1.451-3. After a taxpayer has determined which costs must be treated as indirect production costs includible in the computation of the amount of inventoriable costs, such costs must be allocated to a taxpayer's ending inventory in a manner prescribed by paragraph (d) of this section.

(2)Includibility of certain indirect production costs -

(i)Indirect production costs included in inventoriable costs. Indirect production costs which must enter into the computation of the amount of inventoriable costs (regardless of their treatment by a taxpayer in his financial reports) include:

(a) Repair expenses,

(b) Maintenance,

(c) Utilities, such as heat, power and light,

(d) Rent,

(e) Indirect labor and production supervisory wages, including basic compensation, overtime pay, vacation and holiday pay, sick leave pay (other than payments pursuant to a wage continuation plan under section 105(d), shift differential, payroll taxes and contributions to a supplemental unemployment benefit plan,

(f) Indirect materials and supplies,

(g) Tools and equipment not capitalized, and

(h) Costs of quality control and inspection,

to the extent, and only to the extent, such costs are incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes.

(ii)Costs not included in inventoriable costs. Costs which are not required to be included for tax purposes in the computation of the amount of inventoriable costs (regardless of their treatment by a taxpayer in his financial reports) include:

(a) Marketing expenses,

(b) Advertising expenses,

(c) Selling expenses,

(d) Other distribution expenses,

(e) Interest,

(f) Research and experimental expenses including engineering and product development expenses,

(g) Losses under section 165 and the regulations thereunder,

(h) Percentage depletion in excess of cost depletion,

(i) Depreciation and amortization reported for Federal income tax purposes in excess of depreciation reported by the taxpayer in his financial reports,

(j) Income taxes attributable to income received on the sale of inventory,

(k) Pension contributions to the extent that they represent past services cost,

(l) General and administrative expenses incident to and necessary for the taxpayer's activities as a whole rather than to production or manufacturing operations or processes, and

(m) Salaries paid to officers attributable to the performance of services which are incident to and necessary for the taxpayer's activities taken as a whole rather than to production or manufacturing operations or processes.

Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, if a taxpayer consistently includes in his computation of the amount of inventoriable costs any of the costs described in the preceding sentence, a change in such method of inclusion shall be considered a change in method of accounting within the meaning of sections 446, 481, and paragraph (e)(4) of this section.

(iii)Indirect production costs includible in inventoriable costs depending upon treatment in taxpayer's financial reports. In the case of costs listed in this subdivision, the inclusion or exclusion of such costs from the amount of inventoriable costs for purposes of a taxpayer's financial reports shall determine whether such costs must be included in or excluded from the computation of inventoriable costs for tax purposes, but only if such treatment is not inconsistent with generally accepted accounting principles. In the case of costs which are not included in subdivision (i) or (ii) of this subparagraph, nor listed in this subdivision, whether such costs must be included in or excluded from the computation of inventoriable costs for tax purposes depends upon the extent to which such costs are similar to costs included in subdivision (i) or (ii), and if such costs are dissimilar to costs in subdivision (i) or (ii), such costs shall be treated as included in or excludable from the amount of inventoriable costs in accordance with this subdivision. The costs listed in this subdivision are:

(a) Taxes. Taxes otherwise allowable as a deduction under section 164 (other than State and local and foreign income taxes) attributable to assets incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes. Thus, for example, the cost of State and local property taxes imposed on a factory or other production facility and any State and local taxes imposed on inventory must be included in or excluded from the computation of the amount of inventoriable costs for tax purposes depending upon their treatment by a taxpayer in his financial reports.

(b) Depreciation and depletion. Depreciation reported in financial reports and cost depletion on assets incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes. In computing cost depletion under this section, the adjusted basis of such assets shall be reduced by cost depletion and not by percentage depletion taken thereon.

(c) Employee benefits. Pension and profit-sharing contributions representing current service costs otherwise allowable as a deduction under section 404, and other employee benefits incurred on behalf of labor incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes. These other benefits include workmen's compensation expenses, payments under a wage continuation plan described in section 105(d), amounts of a type which would be includible in the gross income of employees under non-qualified pension, profit-sharing and stock bonus plans, premiums on life and health insurance and miscellaneous benefits provided for employees such as safety, medical treatment, cafeteria, recreational facilities, membership dues, etc., which are otherwise allowable as deductions under chapter 1 of the Code.

(d) Costs attributable to strikes, rework labor, scrap and spoilage. Costs attributable to rework labor, scrap and spoilage which are incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes and costs attributable to strikes incident to production or manufacturing operation or processes.

(e) Factory administrative expenses. Administrative costs of production (but not including any cost of selling or any return on capital) incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes.

(f) Officers' salaries. Salaries paid to officers attributable to services performed incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes.

(g) Insurance costs. Insurance costs incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes such as insurance on production machinery and equipment. A change in the taxpayer's treatment in his financial reports of costs described in this subdivision which results in a change in treatment of such costs for tax purposes shall constitute a change in method of accounting within the meaning of sections 446 and 481 to which paragraph (e) applies.

(3)Exception. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(6) of § 1.451-3, in the case of a taxpayer whose method of accounting for production costs in his financial reports is not comparable to his method of accounting for such costs for tax purposes (such as a taxpayer using the prime cost method for purposes of financial reports), the following rules apply:

(i)Indirect production costs included in inventoriable costs. Indirect production costs which must enter into the computation of the amount of inventoriable costs (to the extent, and only to the extent, such costs are incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes) include:

(a) Repair expenses,

(b) Maintenance,

(c) Utilities, such as heat, power and light,

(d) Rent,

(e) Indirect labor and production supervisory wages, including basic compensation, overtime pay, vacation and holiday pay, sick leave pay (other than payments pursuant to a wage continuation plan under section 105(d)), shift differential, payroll taxes and contributions to a supplemental unemployment benefit plan,

(f) Indirect materials and supplies,

(g) Tools and equipment not capitalized,

(h) Costs of quality control and inspection,

(i) Taxes otherwise allowable as a deduction under section 164 (other than State and local and foreign income taxes),

(j) Depreciation and amortization reported for financial purposes and cost depletion,

(k) Administrative costs of production (but not including any cost of selling or any return on capital) incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes,

(l) Salaries paid to officers attributable to services performed incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes, and

(m) Insurance costs incident to and necessary for production or manufacturing operations or processes such as insurance on production machinery and equipment.

(ii)Costs not included in inventoriable costs. Costs which are not required to be included in the computation of the amount of inventoriable costs include:

(a) Marketing expenses,

(b) Advertising expenses,

(c) Selling expenses,

(d) Other distribution expenses,

(e) Interest,

(f) Research and experimental expenses including engineering and product development expenses,

(g) Losses under section 165 and the regulations thereunder,

(h) Percentage depletion in excess of cost depletion,

(i) Depreciation reported for Federal income tax purposes in excess of depreciation reported by the taxpayer in his financial reports,

(j) Income taxes attributable to income received on the sale of inventory,

(k) Pension and profit-sharing contributions representing either past service costs or representing current service costs otherwise allowable as a deduction under section 404, and other employee benefits incurred on behalf of labor. These other benefits include workmen's compensation expenses, payments under a wage continuation plan described in section 105(d), amounts of a type which would be includible in the gross income of employees under nonqualified pension, profit-sharing and stock bonus plans, premiums on life and health insurance and miscellaneous benefits provided for employees such as safety, medical treatment, cafeteria, recreational facilities, membership dues, etc., which are otherwise allowable as deductions under chapter 1 of the Code,

(l) Cost attributable to strikes, rework labor, scrap and spoilage,

(m) General and administrative expenses incident to and necessary for the taxpayer's activities as a whole rather than to production or manufacturing operations or processes, and

(n) Salaries paid to officers attributable to the performance of services which are incident to and necessary for the taxpayer's activities as a whole rather than to production or manufacturing operations or processes.

(d)Allocation methods -

(1)In general. Indirect production costs required to be included in the computation of the amount of inventoriable costs pursuant to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this paragraph must be allocated to goods in a taxpayer's ending inventory (determined in accordance with the taxpayer's method of identification) by the use of a method of allocation which fairly apportions such costs among the various items produced. Acceptable methods for allocating indirect production costs to the cost of goods in the ending inventory include the manufacturing burden rate method and the standard cost method. In addition, the practical capacity concept can be used in conjunction with either the manufacturing burden rate or standard cost method.

(2)Manufacturing burden rate method -

(i)In general. Manufacturing burden rates may be developed in accordance with acceptable accounting principles and applied in a reasonable manner. In developing a manufacturing burden rate, the factors described in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section may be taken into account. Furthermore, if the taxpayer chooses, he may allocate different indirect production costs on the basis of different manufacturing burden rates. Thus, for example, the taxpayer may use one burden rate for allocating rent and another burden rate for allocating utilities. The method used by the taxpayer in allocating such costs in his financial reports shall be given great weight in determining whether the taxpayer's method employed for tax purposes fairly allocates indirect production costs to the ending inventory. Any change in a manufacturing burden rate which is merely a periodic adjustment to reflect current operating conditions, such as increases in automation or changes in operation, does not constitute a change in method of accounting under section 446. However, a change in the concept upon which such rates are developed does constitute a change in method of accounting requiring the consent of the Commissioner. The taxpayer shall maintain adequate records and working papers to support all manufacturing burden rate calculations.

(ii)Development of manufacturing burden rate. The following factors, among others, may be taken into account in developing manufacturing burden rates:

(a) The selection of an appropriate level of activity and period of time upon which to base the calculation of rates which will reflect operating conditions for purposes of the unit costs being determined;

(b) The selection of an appropriate statistical base such as direct labor hours, direct labor dollars, or machine hours, or a combination thereof, upon which to apply the overhead rate to determine production costs; and

(c) The appropriate budgeting, classification and analysis of expenses (for example, the analysis of fixed and variable costs).

(iii)Operation of the manufacturing burden rate method.

(a) The purpose of the manufacturing burden rate method used in conjunction with the full absorption method of inventory costing is to allocate an appropriate amount of indirect production costs to a taxpayer's goods in ending inventory by the use of predetermined rates intended to approximate the actual amount of indirect production costs incurred. Accordingly, the proper use of the manufacturing burden rate method under this section requires that any net negative or net positive difference between the total predetermined amount of indirect production costs allocated to the goods in ending inventory and the total amount of indirect production costs actually incurred and required to be allocated to such goods (i.e., the under or over-applied burden) must be treated as an adjustment to the taxpayer's ending inventory in the taxable year in which such difference arises. However, if such adjustment is not significant in amount in relation to the taxpayer's total actual indirect production costs for the year then such adjustment need not be allocated to the taxpayer's goods in ending inventory unless such allocation is made in the taxpayer's financial reports. The taxpayer must treat both positive and negative adjustments consistently.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), the practical capacity concept may be used to determine the total amount of fixed indirect production costs which must be allocated to goods in ending inventory. See subparagraph (4) of this paragraph.

(3)Standard cost method -

(i)In general. A taxpayer may use the so-called “standard cost” method of allocating inventoriable costs to the goods in ending inventory, provided he treats variances in accordance with the procedures prescribed in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section. The method used by the taxpayer in allocating such costs in his financial reports shall be given great weight in determining whether the taxpayer's method employed for tax purposes fairly allocates indirect production costs to the ending inventory. For purposes of this subparagraph, a “net positive overhead variance” shall mean the excess of total standard (or estimated) indirect production costs over total actual indirect production costs and a “net negative overhead variance” shall mean the excess of total actual indirect production costs over total standard (or estimated) indirect production costs.

(ii)Treatment of variances.

(a) The proper use of the standard cost method pursuant to this subparagraph requires that a taxpayer must reallocate to the goods in ending inventory a pro rata portion of any net negative or net positive overhead variances and any net negative or net positive direct production cost variances. The taxpayer must apportion such variances among his various items in ending inventory. However, if such variances are not significant in amount in relation to the taxpayer's total actual indirect production costs for the year then such variances need not be allocated to the taxpayer's goods in ending inventory unless such allocation is made in the taxpayer's financial reports. The taxpayer must treat both positive and negative variances consistently.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), the practical capacity concept may be used to determine the total amount of fixed indirect production costs which must be allocated to goods in ending inventory. See subparagraph (4) of this paragraph.

(4)Practical capacity concept -

(i)In general. Under the practical capacity concept, the percentage of practical capacity represented by actual production (not greater than 100 percent), as calculated under subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, is used to determine the total amount of fixed indirect production costs which must be included in the taxpayer's computation of the amount of inventoriable costs. The portion of such costs to be included in the taxpayer's computation of the amount of inventoriable costs is then combined with variable indirect production costs and both are allocated to the goods in ending inventory in accordance with this paragraph. See the example in subdivision (ii)(d) of this subparagraph. The difference (if any) between the amount of all fixed indirect production costs and the fixed indirect production costs which are included in the computation of the amount of inventoriable costs under the practical capacity concept is allowable as a deduction for the taxable year in which such difference occurs.

(ii)Calculation of practical capacity -

(a)In general. Practical capacity and theoretical capacity (as described in (c) of this subdivision) may be computed in terms of tons, pounds, yards, labor hours, machine hours, or any other unit of production appropriate to the cost accounting system used by a particular taxpayer. The determination of practical capacity and theoretical capacity should be modified from time to time to reflect a change in underlying facts and conditions such as increased output due to automation or other changes in plant operation. Such a change does not constitute a change in method of accounting under sections 446 and 481.

(b)Based upon taxpayer's experience. In selecting an appropriate level of production activity upon which to base the calculation of practical capacity, the taxpayer shall establish the production operating conditions expected during the period for which the costs are being determined, assuming that the utilization of production facilities during operations will be approximately at capacity. This level of production activity is frequently described as practical capacity for the period and is ordinarily based upon the historical experience of the taxpayer. For example, a taxpayer operating on a 5-day, 8-hour basis may have a “normal” production of 100,000 units a year based upon three years of experience.

(c)Based upon theoretical capacity. Practical capacity may also be established by the use of “theoretical” capacity, adjusted for allowances for estimated inability to achieve maximum production, such as machine breakdown, idle time, and other normal work stoppages. Theoretical capacity is the level of production the manufacturer could reach if all machines and departments were operated continously at peak efficiency.

(d)Example. The provisions of (c) of this subdivision may be illustrated by the following example:

Corporation X operates a stamping plant with a theoretical capacity of 50 units per hour. The plant actually operates 1960 hours per year based on an 8-hour day, 5 day week basis and 15 shutdown days for vacations and holidays. A reasonable allowance for down time (the time allowed for ordinary and necessary repairs and maintenance) is 5 percent of practical capacity before reduction for down time. Assuming no loss of production during starting up, closing down, or employee work breaks, under these facts and circumstances X may properly make a practical capacity computation as follows:
Practical capacity without allowance for down time based on theoretical capacity per hour is (1960 × 50) 98,000
Reduction for down time (98,000 × 5 percent) 4,900
Practical capacity 93,100
The 93,100 unit level of activity (i.e., practical capacity) would, therefore, constitute an appropriate base for calculating the amount of fixed indirect production costs to be included in the computation of the amount of inventoriable costs for the period under review. On this basis if only 76,000 units were produced for the period, the effect would be that approximately 81.6 percent (76,000, the actual number of units produced, divided by 93,100, the maximum number of units producible at practical capacity) of the fixed indirect production costs would be included in the computation of the amount of inventoriable costs during the year. The portion of the fixed indirect production costs not so included in the computation of the amount of inventoriable costs would be deductible in the year in which paid or incurred. Assume further that 7,600 units were on hand at the end of the taxable year and the 7,600 units were in the same proportion to the total units produced. Thus, 10 percent (7,600 units in inventory at the end of the taxable year, divided by 76,000, the actual number of units produced) of the fixed indirect production costs included in the computation of the amount of inventoriable costs (the above-mentioned 81.6 percent) and 10 percent of the variable indirect production costs would be included in the cost of the goods in the ending inventory, in accordance with a method of allocation provided by this paragraph.

(e)Transition to full absorption method of inventory costing -

(1)In general -

(i)Mandatory requirement. A taxpayer not using the full absorption method of inventory costing, as prescribed by paragraph (a) of this section, must change to that method. Any change to the full absorption method must be made by the taxpayer with respect to all trades or businesses of the taxpayer to which this section applies. A taxpayer not using the full absorption method of inventory costing, as prescribed by paragraph (a) of this section, who makes the special election provided in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph during the transition period described in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph need not change to the full absorption method of inventory costing for taxable years prior to the year for which such election is made. In determining whether the taxpayer is changing to a more or less inclusive method of inventory costing, all positive and negative adjustments for all items and all trades or businesses of the taxpayer shall be aggregated. If the net adjustment is positive, paragraph (e)(3) shall apply, and if the net adjustment is negative, paragraph (e)(4) shall apply to the change. The rules otherwise prescribed in sections 446 and 481 and the regulations thereunder shall apply to any taxpayer who fails to make the special election in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph. The transition rules of this paragraph are available only to those taxpayers who change their method of inventory costing.

(ii)Special election during two-year-transition period. If a taxpayer elects to change to the full absorption method of inventory costing during the transition period provided herein, he may elect on Form 3115 to change to such full absorption method of inventory costing and, in so doing, employ the transition procedures and adopt any of the transition methods prescribed in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph. Such election shall be made during the first 180 days of any taxable year beginning on or after September 19, 1973 and before September 19, 1975 (i.e., the “transition period”) and the change in inventory costing method shall be made for the taxable year in which the election is made. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence if the taxpayer's prior returns have been examined by the Service prior to Sept. 19, 1973, and there is a pending issue involving the taxpayer's method of inventory costing, the taxpayer may request the application of this regulation by agreeing and filing a letter to that effect with the district director, within 90 days after September 19, 1973 to change to the full absorption method for the first taxable year of the taxpayer beginning after Sept. 19, 1973 and subsequently filing Form 3115 within the first 180 days of such taxable year of change.

(iii)Change initiated by the Commissioner. A taxpayer who properly makes an election under subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph shall be considered to have made a change in method of accounting not initiated by the taxpayer, notwithstanding the provisions of § 1.481-1(c)(5). Thus, any of the taxpayer's “pre-1954 inventory balances” with respect to such inventory shall not be taken into account as an adjustment under section 481. For purposes of this paragraph, a “pre-1954 inventory balance” is the net amount of the adjustments which would have been required if the taxpayer had made such change in his method of accounting with respect to his inventory in his first taxable year which began after December 31, 1953, and ended after August 16, 1954. See section 481(a)(2) and § 1.481-3.

(2)Procedural rules for change. If a taxpayer makes an election pursuant to subparagraph (1)(ii) of this paragraph, the Commissioner's consent will be evidenced by a letter of consent to the taxpayer, setting forth the values of inventory, as provided by the taxpayer, determined under the full absorption method of inventory costing, except to the extent that no determination of such values is necessary under subparagraph (3)(ii)(B) of this paragraph (the cut off method), the amount of the adjustments (if any) required to be taken into account by section 481, and the treatment to be accorded to any such adjustments. Such full absorption values shall be subject to verification on examination by the district director. The taxpayer shall preserve at his principal place of business all records, data, and other evidence relating to the full absorption values of inventory.

(3)Transition methods. In the case of a taxpayer who properly makes an election under subparagraph (1)(ii) of this paragraph during the transition period -

(i)10-year adjustment period. Such taxpayer may elect to take any adjustment required by section 481 with respect to any inventory being revalued under the full absorption method into account ratably over a period designated by the taxpayer at the time of such election, not to exceed the lesser of 10 taxable years commencing with the year of transition or the number of years the taxpayer has been on the inventory method from which he is changing. If the taxpayer dies or ceases to exist in a transaction other than one to which section 381(a) of the Code applies or if the taxpayer's inventory (determined under the full absorption method) on the last day of any taxable year is reduced (by other than a strike or involuntary conversion) by more than an amount equal to 33 1/3 percent of the taxpayer's inventory (determined under the full absorption method) as of the beginning of the year of change, the entire amount of the section 481 adjustment not previously taken into account in computing income shall be taken into account in computing income for the taxable year in which such taxpayer so ceases to exist or such taxpayer's inventory is so reduced.

(ii)Additional rules for LIFO taxpayers. A taxpayer who uses the LIFO method of inventory identification may either -

(a) Employ the special transition rules described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph. Accordingly, all LIFO layers must be revalued under the full absorption method and the section 481 adjustment must be computed for all items in all layers in inventory, but no pre-1954 inventory balances shall be taken into account as adjustments under section 481; or

(b)(1) Employ a cut-off method whereby the full absorption method is only applied in costing layers of inventory acquired during all taxable years beginning with the year for which an election is made under subparagraph (e)(1)(ii).

(2) In the case of a taxpayer using dollar value LIFO, employ a cut-off method whereby the taxpayer must use, for the year of change, the full absorption method in computing the base year cost and current cost of a dollar value inventory pool for the beginning of such year. The taxpayer shall not be required to recompute his LIFO inventories based on the full absorption method for a taxable year beginning prior to the year of change to the full absorption method. The base cost and layers of increment previously computed shall be retained and treated as if such base cost and layers of increment had been computed under the method authorized by this section. The taxpayer shall use the year of change as the base year in applying the double extension method or other method approved by the Commissioner, instead of the earliest year for which he adopted the LIFO method for any items in the pool.

(4)Transition to full absorption method of inventory costing from a method more inclusive of indirect production costs - (i)Taxpayer has not previously changed to his present method pursuant to subparagraphs (1), (2), and (3) of this paragraph. If a taxpayer wishes to change to the full absorption method of inventory costing (as prescribed by paragraph (a) of this section) from a method of inventory costing which is more inclusive of indirect production costs and he has not previously changed to his present method by use of the special transition rules provided by subparagraphs (1), (2) and (3) of this paragraph, he may elect on Form 3115 to change to the full absorption method of inventory costing and, in so doing, take into account any resulting section 481 adjustment generally over 10 taxable years commencing with the year of transition. The Commissioner's consent to such election will be evidenced by a letter of consent to the taxpayer setting forth the values of inventory, as provided by the taxpayer determined under the full absorption method of inventory costing, except to the extent that no determination of such values is necessary under subparagraph (3)(ii)(b) of this paragraph, the amount of the adjustments (if any) required to be taken into account by section 481, and the treatment to be accorded such adjustments, subject to terms and conditions specified by the Commissioner to prevent distortions of income. Such election must be made within the transition period described in subparagraph (1)(ii) of this paragraph. A change pursuant to this subparagraph shall be a change initiated by the taxpayer as provided by § 1.481-1(c)(5). Thus, any of the taxpayers “pre-1954 inventory balances” will be taken into account as an adjustment under section 481.

(ii)Taxpayer has previously changed to his present method pursuant to subparagraph (1), (2), and (3) of this paragraph or would satisfy all the requirements of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph but fails to elect within the transition period. If a taxpayer wishes to change to the full absorption method of inventory costing (as prescribed by paragraph (a) of this section) from a method of inventory costing which is more inclusive of indirect production costs and he has previously changed to his present method pursuant to subparagraphs (1), (2), and (3) of this paragraph or he would satisfy the requirements of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph but he fails to elect within the transition period, he must secure the consent of the Commissioner prior to making such change.

[T.D. 7285, 38 FR 26185, Sept. 19, 1973, as amended by T.D. 8067, 51 FR 393, Jan. 6, 1986; T.D. 8131, 52 FR 10084, Mar. 30, 1987; T.D. 8482, 58 FR 42234, Aug. 9, 1993]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

Pages